The Anger of the Gods 天神的愤怒
Laomedon was the son of Ilus and became king of Troy after his father's death. Laomedon was known for his arrogance and impiety1) and as one who refused to honor his promises.
Poseidon and Apollo, being punished for rebelling2) against Zeus, had to work for a mortal for one year. So the two disguised3) themselves as builders, and were hired by Laomedon to build the walls of Troy. Poseidon and Apollo wanted only the vine of gold as payment for their work. Laomedon readily4) agreed.
The walls built by Poseidon and Apollo were impregnable5). After the gods finished building the wall, Laomedon refused to pay the agreed wage for their services. Furious, Apollo caused a plague6) within the city, while Poseidon sent a sea-monster to ravage7) the Trojan countryside. Laomedon then ordered them to be expelled from the city and Apollo and Poseidon vowed revenge.
Later, Priam, the son of Laomedon, ascended8) to the throne. His wife had a strange dream before she gave birth to their second son. She dreamed that she gave birth to a torch, which burnt Troy to ashes. A seer9) interpreted this dream as a sign that the boy would bring destruction to the city. Therefore, Laomedon ordered the baby prince to be taken by a shepherd and abandoned on Mount Ida10).
The baby prince survived by suckling11) from a she bear, and nine days later, when the shepherd came back, he decided to raise him as his own son instead of letting him die. He named the boy Paris.
Paris later grew up to be a handsome and strong shepherd. The lad12) was later chosen by Zeus to make the famous judgment of the golden apple. This apple was thrown into a banquet13) on Mount Olympus by Eris, the goddess of strife14), who was jealous that she had not been invited. It was marked as a gift for "the most beautiful one". Several goddesses argued over who was the most beautiful. Paris was tasked with choosing who the most beautiful was. He picked Aphrodite, thus angering Athena and Hera. Being the prince of Troy, Paris turned these powerful gods against his city.
Helen of Troy 特洛伊的海伦
Helen of Troy, the daughter of King Tyndareus of Sparta, would become the cause of the epic Trojan War that lasted more than ten years. She was the most beautiful woman in the world, and Aphrodite promised15) her to Paris as a bribe16) to choose her as the most beautiful woman.
When Helen was ripe17) to marry, many kings and princes from around the world came to seek her hand, bringing rich gifts with them. Finally, Helen's father Tyndareus had to make a decision, but he was afraid to select a husband for his daughter, or send any of the suitors18) away for fear of offending them and giving grounds for a quarrel.
Odysseus, the future military leader of the Trojan War, was one of the suitors, but had brought no gifts because he believed he had little chance to win the contest. He thus promised to solve the problem on the condition that the king in turn would support him in his courting of Penelope, the daughter of Icarius. Tyndareus readily agreed and Odysseus proposed that, before the decision was made, all the suitors should swear a most solemn oath to defend the chosen husband against whoever should quarrel with him.
After the suitors had sworn not to retaliate19), Menelaus20), was chosen by Helen herself to be her husband. Helen had actually mistaken Agamemnon21), the future Greek commander-in-chief of the Trojan War, for his brother Menelaus. However, Agamemnon didn't take advantage of his brother and told them the truth that he was just a representative. Therefore, Helen later married Menelaus and not Agamemnon. Menelaus became the king of Sparta after Tyndareus abdicated22), and Agamemnon eventually came to rule Mycenae23) and became the most powerful prince in Greece.
But the marriage of Helen and Menelaus was doomed to fail, as Helen had been promised to Paris by Aphrodite. Paris came to Sparta, and when he saw Helen, he indeed fell in love with her. Paris raided24) Menelaus's house and kidnapped Helen, likely with her consent25) since Aphrodite made her fall in love with paris. Their elopement26) summoned27) the warships of Greece, commanded by all of Helen's suitors who had vowed to defend Menelaus's marriage. Helen's abduction28) became the righteous29) and immediate cause of the Trojan War, which consumed30) the lives of Greece's warriors, thus ending the age of heroes.
1. Paris (帕里斯)。很多同学容易把这个词与法国的首都巴黎混作一谈,并因此认为巴黎得名与帕里斯有关。这完全是个误会,巴黎得名于其城里的居民,他们是高卢部落帕里斯的后裔,即巴黎因部落而得名。
1. TROJANWALL (木马防火墙)。很多人因为知道Trojan.exe在电脑中是病毒程序,所以看到包含这个词的名称就以为是木马,但实际上TROJANWALL.exe是Windows木马清道夫的木马防火墙软件相关程序,它背后的文化内涵是:该程序就像“特洛伊城墙”那样坚不可摧,防毒效果强大。但实际使用中是否如此,就仁者见仁智者见智了。
2. Treasure of Priam (普里阿摩斯宝藏,也叫特洛伊宝藏)。探险家、考古学家施里曼凭着荷马史诗的指点,不仅证明了希腊人用木马计攻陷特洛伊城是历史事实,挖掘出埋没两千多年的特洛伊城遗址,找到了“普里阿摩斯宝藏”,而且还在伯罗奔尼撒半岛的一条山谷发现了迈锡尼王阿伽门农的坟墓,打开了埋藏三千年之久的地下宝库,由此揭开了世界考古史上最为辉煌的一页 。但也有学者认为,这些宝藏只是一个特洛伊神话的爱好者一厢情愿的定性,实际和特洛伊城无关。
3. Helen of Troy (特洛伊的海伦)。此成语类似于现如今我们所说的“红颜祸水”,但是史学家一般认为古代部落战争实际都是利益的争夺,和女人关系不大,女人只是提供了一个看上去合理的借口而已。所谓“特洛伊的海伦”,实质上是财富和商业霸权的化身。中国历史上也有过“妲己亡商”、“西施沼吴”等传说,以及唐明皇因宠幸杨贵妃而招致“安史之乱”,吴三桂“冲冠一怒为红颜”等说法。汉语中有个成语叫“倾国倾城”(语出《汉书·外戚传》:一顾倾人城,再顾倾人国),这里的“倾”字一语双关,既可指美艳非凡、令人倾倒,也可指倾覆邦国,其含义与Helen of Troy十分近似。
1. impiety [Im5paIEtI] n. 不虔诚,不敬神
2. rebel [rI5bel] vi. 反叛,造反;武力反抗
3. disguise [dIs5^aIz] vt. 假扮,化装
4. readily [5redIlI] adv. 乐意地
5. impregnable [Im5pre^nEbl] adj. (城堡等)攻不破的;固若金汤的;不能征服的
6. plague [pleI^] n. 瘟疫;鼠疫
7. ravage [5rAvIdV] vt. 使荒芜;彻底毁灭,毁坏,蹂躏;劫掠
8. ascend [E5send] vi. (渐渐)上升,升高
9. seer [sIE(r)] n. 预言家;先知;有异常洞察力的人
10. Mount Ida: 艾达峰,克里特岛中部一山峰。它是该岛的最高点,在古代它与人们对宙斯的崇拜有密切的联系。
11. suckle [5sQkl] vi. 吸奶
12. lad [lAd] n. 男孩,少年;青年男子,小伙子
13. banquet [5bANkwIt] n. 宴会;盛宴,筵席
14. strife [straIf] n. 冲突;争吵;争斗
15. promise [5prCmIs] vt. [常用被动语态] <古> 把(某人)许配(给)。常和介词to连用。
16. bribe [braIb] n. 贿赂,用来买通别人的钱财(或物品、好处等)
17. ripe [raIp] adj. 作好充分准备的;适龄的。常和介词for连用。
18. suitor [5sju:tE(r)] n. 求婚者
19. retaliate [rI5tAlIeIt] vi. 报复,回报;以牙还牙
20. Menelaus [7menI5leIEs] n. 【希神】梅内莱厄斯(斯巴达国王,美人Helen之夫,Agamemnon之弟,请求其兄出兵帮助从Paris手中夺回被劫之Helen)
21. Agamemnon [7A^E5memnEn] n. 【希神】阿伽门农(特洛伊战争中的希腊联军统帅)
22. abdicate [5AbdIkeIt] vi. 正式放弃权力(或责任等);退位;辞职
23. Mycenae [maI5si:ni:] n. 迈锡尼(希腊南部古城)
24. raid [reId] vt. (警察等)突入⋯⋯查抄(或搜捕)
25. consent [kEn5sent] n. 同意;赞同,准许
26. elopement [I5lEupmEnt] n. 潜逃,私奔
27. summon [5sQmEn] vt. 召集
28. abduction [Ab5dQkFEn] n. 诱拐;劫持;绑架
29. righteous [5raItFEs] adj. 正义的;正当的
30. consume [kEn5sju:m] vt. 毁灭