Origins of Love and Beauty 爱在罗马 美源希腊
They say it all begins with a kiss.
The first ever screen kiss was filmed by the Thomas Edison Company for a stage show. It lasted a whole minute and caused a sensation when it was first shown in 1896.
But, just when was the kiss invented? Yup, I did say invented. It seems that us human beings haven’t always been kissing, and that the kiss might be yet another thing that we owe to the ancient Romans. In most of the ancient 1)civilizations that have left any record of what they did, it appears that rubbing noses or cheeks was the commonest form of greeting and pressing the lips together was an action reserved for mother and child. The ancient Romans, however, were so excited by the idea of kissing that they invented a whole new vocabulary for it. Now that’s what they called a basiam, a polite kissing of the hand and a little 2)peck on the cheek.
1)civilization [9sIvIlaI5zeIFEn] n. 文明, 文化
2)peck [pek] n. 啄
The word 3)gymnasium comes from the Greek meaning to exercise naked. Yup, even the gym is an ancient invention. The Greeks and Romans took the 4)workout more seriously than, perhaps, any other culture in recorded history. Young men were expected to go to the gym every day. 5)Pumping iron is another invention we owe to the 6)classical world. Weight training, running, boxing, wrestling, throwing the 7)javelin and 8)discus were all part of the routine.
3)gymnasium [dVIm5neIzIEm] n. 健身房, 体育馆
4)pump iron 做负重训练，锻炼肌肉
5)workout [5w\:kaJt] n. 体育锻炼
6)classical [5klAsIkEl] a. 古希腊的，古罗马的
7)javelin [5dVAvlIn] n. 标枪
8)discus [5dIskEs] n. 铁饼
Beauty Contest 选美的由来
The 20th century seems to have elevated physical beauty into a competitive sport 9)in its own right, but the beauty contest is as old as history. It was invented, according to Greek mythology, when the gods asked the shepherd, 10)Paris, to decide who was the fairest goddess, Athena, goddess of wisdom, Aphrodite, goddess of love and beauty, or Hera, the wife of Zeus. Paris chose Aphrodite who had promised him the most beautiful mortal woman as a bride, Helen of Troy. Helen’s husband 11)took a dim view of this offer and, thus, the world’s first beauty contest ended up in a bloody war.
According to the historical record the forerunner of the modern beauty contest first took place over 3,000 years ago on the Greek Island of Lesbos.
But in ancient Greece, beauty was even more of a boy’s thing than a girl’s. The Greeks may be best known for inventing the Olympic Games, but they also invented the Mr. Universe contest. The Greeks took physical beauty so seriously, that they even invented mathematical guidelines for bodily perfection according to rules of proportion and 12)symmetry. For them, physical beauty was equated with moral beauty. Being out of shape and unattractive was consequently considered a 13)vice.
9)in one’s own right 凭借自身的力量
11)took a dim view of 持不赞成的态度
12)symmetry [5sImItrI] n. 对称, 匀称
13)vice [vaIs] n. 缺憾，恶习