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巴西的文化符号 Cultural Icons of Brazil


  Brazil is blessed with one of the most fascinating cultures in the world. It’s the only Portuguese speaking country in South America and the people here have managed to blend elements of many diverse cultures into one incredible mix that is unique in its uninhibited1) flair2) and passionate way of life. Now let’s take a look at a few of the country’s wonderful cultural icons.

Carnival 狂欢节  Carnival is undoubtedly the most popular celebration in Brazil and it is celebrated in all of Brazil’s cities. Carnival expresses the culture, history, music, and images of Brazil.

  The event and the parade which takes place in Rio de Janeiro3) is the most famous and richest carnival in Brazil and maybe in the whole world. A million tourists join millions of Rio de Janeiro residents in the world’s most fantastic party spanning several days and nights. From the Friday before Ash Wednesday4) to the following Thursday, the whole city shuts down5) for a wild celebration.
Carnival 狂欢节  里约热内卢举行的庆祝活动和狂欢游行是巴西最负盛名、最丰富多彩的狂欢节庆典,也许在全世界范围内亦是如此。上百万的游客与里约热内卢的数百万居民一起加入到这一全世界最为美妙的聚会中,享受长达几昼夜的狂欢。从圣灰星期三前的星期五到下一周的星期四,里约热内卢全城停止正常的运转,全情投入到疯狂的庆典中。

  The origin of Brazil’s carnival goes back to a Portuguese pre-Lent6) festivity called “Entrudo”. Entrudo was a chaotic three-day street event where people in masks threw water, flour, and mud at each other and that often led to riots.
  巴西狂欢节起源于葡萄牙大斋节前的一个名为 “恩特鲁多”的欢庆活动。“恩特鲁多”是一种在街头举行的庆典活动,为期三天,庆典场面混乱。在活动期间,人们戴着面具,相互泼洒水、面粉和泥浆,常常引起骚乱。

  In 1840, the Italian wife of a Rio de Janeiro hotel owner changed the carnival celebration forever by sending out invitations, hiring musicians, importing streamers7) and confetti8), and giving a lavish masked ball. Carnival street parades followed a decade later with horse-drawn floats9) and military bands.

samba 桑巴  The carnivals reached a peak around 1930 when the samba schools started to emerge in Rio de Janeiro. The samba is a unique Brazilian music and a dance form that was begun by the poor Afro-Brazilians. It grew out of the Angolan word “samba”, which translates as pelvic10) movements and the African rite of reproduction. The movements in this samba developed out of the polka, tango, waltz, and another samba music called Choro11).

  Nowadays Rio’s Carnival is the most impressive and best-organized carnival in Brazil. The highlight of the carnival is the Parade at Marques de Sapucai, where different samba schools fight for the title of Carnival Champion. Samba rhythms, fantastic dancers, splendid costumes, live colors, and beautiful women are the main ingredients of this great competition. Some of the greatest parts of the carnival are that it also provides entertainment for many people around the world, and it gives others a chance to learn about the culture of Brazil.

Brazil   Without any doubt, Brazil is one of the biggest soccer countries in the world. For millions of Brazilians, soccer is a“way of life” and plays an important role in their social life.

  Soccer was brought to Brazil in 1885 by the Englishman Charles Miller. It started as a game played only by rich boys in private clubs. After decades of discrimination against poor or black people, soccer changed into a professional activity in 1933 and after this it became very popular in schools, factories and clubs. Soccer was played throughout the country on beaches or fields, and with its popularity, it was especially practiced by the low-income population.

足球  The way soccer is played in Brazil is unique. Its style is the result of the rhythm and coordination from the Afro-Brizilians. This unique quality was a characteristic of slaves that developed the capoeira12), Brazilian martial arts13) and samba, which are characterized by footsteps to dance or to play under the rhythm of African drums.

  The Brazil soccer team was the first team to win the World Cup five times in 1958, 1962, 1970, 1994, and 2002. Also Brazil has more professional soccer teams than any other country in the world. Great players such as Pele, Garrincha, Zico, Romario and Ronaldo started playing soccer on dirt fields under poor conditions. They turned into very good players known all over the world, which also made Brazil very famous.

  Many poor boys are dreaming of becoming the next Pele or Ronaldo and because of this, they promote the national soccer culture even more. Dreaming about soccer is a motivation for millions of children, who want to escape from their poverty. They combine the fun of soccer with living in poverty. It’s even so that the soccer culture has a bigger influence on the Brazilian life than for example politics or economics.

Churrasco 巴西烧烤  More than 400 years ago cattle ranching14) was introduced to the Rio Grande do Sul region of Brazil. Cowboys, called Gauchos, herded15) these cattle, and created a new style of cooking. They called it Churrasco, which is Brazilian Barbecue. Churrasco started in the 16th and 17th centuries and spread throughout all of Brazil in the 1940’s as the Gauchos spread across the country.

  Originally the standard formula for Brazilian style barbecue was to coat meats in coarse16) salt. The meat would then sit for about 30 minutes to absorb the salt and then was placed over the fire. Later a salt-water baste17) was used to keep meats moist18)during the cooking. Beef was typically never seasoned19). Poultry20) and lamb, however, are spiced with a rich marinade21) the night before cooking. Meats are places on long sword-like skewers and cooked over an open fire. Nowadays with the growing popularity of this style of grilling you can even buy a churasco grill.

  Churrasco is much more than a way of cooking in Rio Grande do Sul. It’s a way of life. The Barbecue capital of Brazil is the city of Nova Brescia which has a statue of a man cooking barbecue in the central plaza22). In the 1940’s this city had a population of about 150,000. Since then the population has dropped to about 30,000 due to the mass exodus23) of people leaving to open Barbecue restaurants across Brazil. The popularity of Brazilian Barbecue has lead to the founding of dozens of restaurants, popping24) up all over the world.

  More than a typical food, the churrasco is kind of institution among Brazilians. Important events (weddings, anniversaries, football victories) are often celebrated with a churrasco, which start in the morning and goes into the night.

  Brazilian culture wouldn’t survive without a beach nearby. In Brazil the beach is not just a place to go for recreation or sport, it is a way of life. Brazilians have an obsession with their beach culture.

Brazilian beaches 巴西海滩  Brazilian beaches by nature’s design and reputation are extraordinary: thousands of miles of changing landscape and scenery replete25) with crashing waves for the ardent surfer and calm emerald26) coves for the leisurely traveler. Up and down the thousands of miles of Brazilian coastline lie literally thousands of beaches, from the internationally famous to the seductively secluded27).

  No one knows how to make the most out of a beach as well as the Brazilians do. It is justifiably called a “culture”. All of the beaches of Brazil though are not for all of the people wishing to visit them. Each has their own quirks and characteristics. Many are easily accessible by public transportation and are surrounded by creature comforts we’ve come to expect and enjoy. Others are extremely remote, isolated, pristine28) and unspoiled by the hands of man. Each has its own sense of history and appeal. Exploring the opportunity to touch the confluence of sun, sand and sea in so many unique and original ways can be not only invigorating but also relaxing, enlightening, spiritually refreshing and just plain fun.

  1. uninhibited [7QnIn5hIbItId] adj. 放荡不羁的,不受抑制的   2. flair [fleə] n. 天资,才能,特殊的才干
  3. Rio de Janeiro [5ri(:)Eu dE dVE5nIErEu] n. 里约热内卢,巴西东南部港市
  4. Ash Wednesday:圣灰星期三(复活节前的第七个星期三)
  5. shut down:(使)关闭,(使)停工
  6. Lent [lent] n. [宗] 大斋节(指复活节前为纪念耶稣在荒野禁食而进行的为期40天的斋戒及忏悔)
  7. streamer [5stri:mE] n. 彩色纸带,飘带   8. confetti [kEn5fetI] n. (婚礼、狂欢节中抛撒的)五彩纸屑
  9. float [flEut] n. 彩车   10. pelvic [5pelvIk] adj. [解] 骨盆的
  11. Choro:啼乐,巴西音乐中一种重要的音乐类型,起源于1860至1870年巴西的里约热内卢。之所以叫“啼乐”,是因为它最初的曲风较为低沉哀伤、多愁善感,但后来逐渐发展成为愉悦欢快的风格。
  12. capoeira [7kB:pE5weIrE] n. 卡泼卫勒战舞(一种把民间舞蹈和自卫动作结合在一起的巴西舞蹈,源于非洲)
  13. martial arts:武术(指功夫、柔道、空手道)   14. ranch [rAntF, rB:ntF] vi. 经营牧场
  15. herd [hE:d] vt. 把……赶在一起放牧   16. coarse [kC:s] adj. 粗的,粗粒的
  17. baste [beIst] n. 油脂(如溶化了的奶油或酱汁)   18. moist [mCIst] adj. 潮湿的,湿润的
  19. season [5si:zn] vt. 给……加调味料   20. poultry [5pEultrI] n. 家禽
  21. marinade [7mArI5neId] n. 腌泡汁   22. plaza [5plB:zE] n. 广场
  23. exodus [5eksEdEs] n. (大群人的)离开   24. pop [pCp] vi. (突然)冒出
  25. replete [rI5pli:t] adj. 充满的,装满的   26. emerald [5emErEld] adj. 翡翠的,翠绿色的
  27. secluded [sI5klu:dId] adj. 隐退的,隐蔽的   28. pristine [5prIstaIn] adj. 原始的,未被文明腐蚀的