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特洛伊战争序曲 First Gathering of Archaean Forces


  The Elopement of Helen and Paris   海伦和帕里斯私奔
  When Paris judged who the apple of discord2) would go to, he was in fact already married. His wife Oenone3) had the magical power of healing wounded men, however sorely4) they were hurt.
  They lived happily in the forest, but one day, when the servants of Priam (King of Troy) had driven off a beautiful bull of Paris, he left the hills to seek it, and came into the town of Troy. His mother, Hecuba5), saw him, and looking at him closely, perceived6) that he wore a ring which she had hurriedly tied around her baby's neck when he was taken away from her soon after his birth. Hecuba, seeing him so beautiful and knowing him to be her son, wept for joy and forgot all about the prophecy7) that he would ruin Troy. King Priam gave him a house like those of his brothers, the Trojan princes.
  Later, Paris heard of the beauty of Helen, but it was too late for him to have a chance of marrying her. However, he was determined to see her. He and his companions were brought before King Menelaus of Sparta, who welcomed them kindly, and meat and wine in cups of gold was set before them. While they were talking, Helen came forth from her fragrant8) chamber9), like a Goddess.
  Then Paris knew that he had never seen, and never could see, a lady so lovely and gracious10) as Helen, and Helen knew that among all the princes in the world there was none so beautiful as Paris.
  Some said that Paris, by art of magic, put on the appearance of Menelaus and asked Helen to come sailing with him. And they said that Helen, thinking he was her husband, followed him, and he carried her across the wide waters of Troy, away from her lord11) and her beautiful little daughter, the child Hermione.  

The Elopement of Helen and Paris  当帕里斯判定“不和的金苹果”的归属时,他实际上已经结婚了。他的妻子俄诺涅拥有疗伤的神奇力量,无论伤情多么严重,她都能治愈。

  Odysseus Joins the Fleet 奥德修斯加入舰队
  All the princes who had come to seek Helen for marriage had vowed to protect Helen's marriage in the Oath of Tyndareus. Now that Helen was seduced12) by Paris, Menelaus came to his brother Agamemnon and asked him to help defend his honor.
  Agamemnon then summoned all the princes to form an Achaean fleet, though not all the princes were willing to come. However, Palamedes (the son of the Euboean King Nauplius) brought the most resourceful13) man, Odysseus, to Agamemnon, and Odysseus in turn persuaded the mightiest hero, Achilles, to join the fleet. The seer14) Calchas had stated that Troy would not be taken unless Achilles would fight.
  Palamedes was the most knowledgeable man at that time. It was said that he invented dice, some of the Phoenician letters and jokes. But knowledge didn't save him from death—in outwitting15) Odysseus, he incurred16) his own demise17).
  Odysseus was the ruler of Ithaca18) and was known for his cleverness and cunning19) and his eloquence20) as a speaker. When Agamemnon summoned21) him, he was reluctant22) to make good23) on his oath—he had just married his beautiful wife Penelope24) a year before, and they had a baby son. To avoid leaving, he pretended to have gone mad, plowing his fields and sowing salt instead of grain. Palamedes outwitted him by placing his infant son in front of the plow, and Odysseus revealed his sanity25) when he turned aside to avoid injuring the child.
  Odysseus never forgave Palamedes for sending him into the Trojan War and plotted night and day to seek revenge. Later when they were in the front line at Troy, he buried gold in Palamedes's quarters26) and gave a letter to a Trojan prisoner to be carried to King Priam, then sent a soldier of his ahead to kill the prisoner not far away from the camp. So when the army returned to the camp the next day, a soldier found the letter on the body of the dead Trojan prisoner. On it it was written:
  "Sent to Palamedes from Priam."
  The letter promised Palamedes the amount of gold Odysseus had hidden if he betrayed27) the camp.
  Agamemnon found Palamedes guilty of treason28) and had him stoned to death.

  Prophecy said that the son of the goddess Thetis29) would have either a long but dull life, or a glorious but brief life. When the Trojan War broke out, Thetis was anxious. She disguised Achilles as a girl, and concealed30) him at the court of Lycomedes with his many daughters.
  When Odysseus found that one of the girls at court was not a girl, but Achilles, he dressed as a merchant and set up a table of vanity items and jewellery and called to the group.
  Only Achilles picked up the golden sword that lay to one side, and Odysseus quickly revealed him to be male. Seeing that she could no longer prevent her son from realizing his destiny, Thetis then had Hephaestus make a shield and armor to protect her son.
  Other princes refused to fulfill their promises in various ways, and the first expedition was not fruitful, for they could not find Troy.

  1. Achaean [E5ki:En] adj. 亚加亚的;亚加亚人的;亚加亚文化的
  2. discord [5dIskC:d] n. 不和,争论,冲突
  3. Oenone [i:5nEJni:] n.【希神】俄诺涅(特洛伊王子Paris初娶的山林水泽中女神,后来Paris因爱Helen而将其抛弃)
  4. sorely [5sC:lI] adv. 疼痛地;痛苦地
  5. Hecuba [5hekjJbE] n.【希神】赫卡柏(特洛伊之王Priam之妻)
  6. perceive [pE5si:v] vt. 意识到
  7. prophecy [5prCfIsI] n. 预言
  8. fragrant [5freI^rEnt] adj. 香的,芬芳的
  9. chamber [5tFeImbE(r)] n. 室;寝室
  10. gracious [5^reIFEs] adj. <古> 优美的,雅致的
  11. lord [lC:d] n. <古> 丈夫
  12. seduce [sI5dju:s] vt. 吸引;引诱
  13. resourceful [rI5sC:sful] adj. 善于随机应变的,机敏的;足智多谋的
  14. seer [sIE(r)] n. 预言家;先知
  15. outwit [7aut5wIt] vt. <古> 在智慧和才学上超过;智胜
  16. incur [In5k\:(r)] vt. 招致,惹起,引起,带来
  17. demise [dI5maIz] n. 死亡
  18. Ithaca [5IWEkE] n. 绮色佳(爱奥尼亚海希腊西海岸附近一岛,传说中奥德修斯的家园)
  19. cunning [5kQnIN] n. 狡猾,狡诈
  20. eloquence [5elEkwEns] n. 雄辩,流利的口才
  21. summon [5sQmEn] vt. 召集
  22. reluctant [rI5lQktEnt] adj. 不情愿的;勉强的
  23. make good: 履行
  24. Penelope [pI5nelEpI, pE-] n. 【希神】珀涅罗珀(Odysseus的忠实妻子,丈夫远征离家后拒绝无数求婚者,20年后等到丈夫归来)
  25. sanity [5sAnEtI] n. 精神健全,精神正常
  26. quarter [5kwC:tE(r)] n. [常用复数形式] 住处;营房,营舍
  27. betray [bI5treI] vt. 背叛;出卖
  28. treason [5tri:zn] n. 重叛逆罪,叛国罪
  29. Thetis [5WetIs, 5Wi:-] n. 【希神】西蒂斯(Achilles的母亲)
  30. conceal [kEn5si:l] vt. 隐藏,掩盖
  1. Trojan (特洛伊人)。近几年来,网络病毒“特洛伊木马”大行其道,以至于人们一谈到Trojan就认为是病毒,实际上,这个词的含义远不止于此。除了指“特洛伊人”外,它还可以表示“勇敢的人;精力旺盛的人;勤勉的人”。形容某人作战勇敢可以说:“He fights like a Trojan.”形容某人工作勤勤恳恳可以说:“He works like a Trojan.”
  2. Achaeans (亚加亚人;古希腊人)。正如古代中国人在理论上不应被叫做“中国人”而应被称为“华族人”一样,古希腊人在古时候也并非叫做“古希腊人”,而是“亚加亚人”。亚加亚是古希腊大陆上四个主要的部族之一(另三个为爱奥尼亚人、伊奥利亚人和多利安人),亦是荷马史诗《伊利亚特》(Iliad)中对希腊军队的集体称谓。荷马用“亚加亚”指称希腊部队领袖阿伽门农的国土。这片国土位于伯罗奔尼撒半岛的北部,大致对应现代希腊的阿哈利亚州和科林斯州。
  1. 特洛伊战争中人物关系的趣味比较。当希腊神话介绍到特洛伊战争时,很多之前提到过的人物和神都在此汇聚,人物关系逐渐变复杂。我们不妨把其中一些关系和中国传统文学故事中的人物进行类比,便于记忆。就本文提到的几个主要人物来看,我们可以大家熟悉的《三国演义》为例,进行类比记忆。就举荐关系看,Palamedes相当于徐庶,Odysseus相当于诸葛亮;就妒忌关系看,Palamedes相当于诸葛亮,而Odysseus相当于周瑜;就本文提到的Odysseus设计杀害Palamedes一事,Odysseus相当于周瑜,Palamedes相当于曹军中的蔡瑁、张允,那个被抓的特洛伊士兵相当于蒋干,而Agamemnon相当于曹操。Achilles武功盖世,类似于吕布,和主帅Agamemnon的关系一度因为一个女子而紧张,这个女子相当于貂蝉,而阿伽门农此时则相当于董卓。
  2. Achaean League (亚加亚同盟),古代希腊城邦联盟。一般学者认为亚加亚同盟就是特洛伊战争中廷达瑞俄斯誓约(Oath of Tyndareus)的历史依据。公元前4世纪,在伯罗奔尼撒半岛(Peloponnese)北部亚加亚州有一个由12个城邦组成的同盟;公元前4世纪晚期,该同盟在马其顿的打击下解体。公元前 280年,一些城邦趁马其顿内乱之机又重新结盟。公元前251年,西居昂加入同盟。从那以后,同盟的领域逐渐扩大,至公元前3世纪下半叶最鼎盛时,同盟已经囊括了伯罗奔尼撒半岛和希腊中部的许多城邦。同盟内部各邦一律平等,内政自主,仅在外交和军事上要求一致行动。同盟最高权力机构是全同盟公民大会,每年召开两次。同盟的最高官员是一位将军,战时领兵出征,平时也拥有很大权力。将军一年一选,卸任后隔一年可重新当选。