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印度: 现实版《 阿凡达 》“激情”上映

Echoes of Avatar: Is a Tribe in India the Real-Life 1)Na'vi?  印度: 现实版《 阿凡达 》“激情”上映


Echoes of Avatar: Is a Tribe in India the Real-Life Na'vi?  Every year in late February, the Dongria Kondh tribe of the eastern Indian state of Orissa gathers at the top of Niyamgiri Mountain to celebrate the annual festival of Niyam 2)Raja, the king of the mountain. This year’s celebration began on Feb. 20th with a three-hour climb to the summit. Women in white silk saris danced and sang, adorned with wooden jewelry, flowers and tiny knives tucked into their hair as a reminder of their daily confrontation with the forest. Hundreds of Dongria then shared a communal feast of rice and 3)lentils in honor of nature and their 4)deity, the spirit of Niyamgiri. As always, they made offerings of fruit and medicinal plants, reminders of the mountain’s 5)bounty, but ended the ceremonies with an acknowledgement of their uncertain future. The Dongria, who number about 8,000, believe that a planned 6)bauxite mine in Niyamgiri threatens their way of life—and they are determined to fight it. This year, for the first time, they opened their ceremonies to outsiders and ended the festival with speeches condemning the mine. Says Satyabadi Naik, an activist who supports the Dongria: “This year, it was a matter of life or death for them.”
  每年的二月底,印度东部奥里萨邦的东加里亚空达部落都会聚集在奈彦吉利山山顶,庆祝一年一度的奈彦山王节。今年的庆典于2月20日开始,部落的一众男女攀行3小时到达山顶。该部落的女性身穿白色丝质纱丽,载歌载舞。她们戴着木制饰品、鲜花,发髻上还插着象征与森林抗衡求生的小刀头饰。接着,几千名东加里亚空达人一起享用米和小扁豆煮成的大餐,以此表达对自然、神和奈彦吉利山山魂的敬意。像往年一样,他们献上水果和草药作为贡品,寄意奈彦吉利山的丰饶。和往年不同的是,在今年的庆典结束之际,东加里亚空达人表达了对本族未来生存状况的彷徨。东加里亚空达部落大约有8000名族人,他们认为针对本地铝土矿的开采计划威胁到了他们的生活方 式——并决心抗争到底。今年,他们首次允许外人参与奈彦吉利山庆典,并以谴责开采本地矿产的演讲结束庆典。一位支持东加里亚空达部落的社运人士萨特亚巴蒂·奈克说道:“今年,对东加里亚空达部落而言,这是生死攸关的大事。”
  An isolated tribe of nature-worshipping forest dwellers threatened by a mine—yes, the Dongria 7)bear no small resemblance to the Na’vi of 8)James Cameron’s Avatar. That point has not been lost on the international network of activists who have taken up the Dongria’s cause. On Feb. 8th, they ran an advertisement in the Hollywood 9)trade publication 10)Variety, urging Cameron to support them. “Avatar is fantasy ... and real,” the ad said. “The Dongria Kondh tribe in India is struggling to defend their land against a mining company 11)hell-bent on destroying their sacred mountain. Please help the Dongria.”
  一个受到采矿业的威胁、崇拜自然、与世隔绝的森林部落——是的,东加里亚空达部落的遭遇和詹姆斯·卡梅隆导演的电影《阿凡达》里的纳美人的遭遇有诸多相似之处。关注该部落存亡的社运人士抓住了《阿凡达》全球热映这个极好的机会,在国际网络上呼吁大家关注东加里亚空达部落的困境。2月8日,他们在好莱坞电影业界刊物——《综艺》杂志上刊登了一则广告,促请卡梅隆支持东加里亚空达部落的抵抗运动。“《阿凡达》是部科幻 片……却也是真实的写照,”广告上写着,“生活在印度的东加里亚空达部落正处于保卫家园的奋战中,抵抗某矿业公司为利润一心摧毁其圣山的计划。请支援东加里亚空达部落。”
  While India’s Ministry of Environment and Forests 12)ponders whether to clear the way for the Niyamgiri bauxite mine, the Dongria’s supporters are 13)mounting a campaign to block it. Survival International, a London-based advocacy group, bought the Avatar ad and has produced a short film about the Dongria. Lindsay Duffield, a London-based spokeswoman for the group, says the Indian government should postpone its decision, expected later this year, until India’s 2006 Forest Rights Act is fully implemented. The act aims to protect the interests of India’s traditional forest dwellers. “The mine should only go ahead if the Dongria accept and want it,” Duffield says.
  As if following its own Hollywood film script, Survival International points the finger at a villain: a London-based mining company called Vedanta Resources that is controlled by billionaire businessman Anil Agarwal. Vedanta’s 14)aluminum 15)subsidiary plans to invest $2.5 billion to extract some 78 million tons of bauxite from Niyamgiri Mountain. Its chief operating officer, Mukesh Kumar, insists that the mine will benefit the Dongria—the company will set aside 5% of the mine’s pretax profits for a local development agency—and that it has followed all the relevant Indian laws. “Whatever we do, we do in a transparent manner,” he says. Yet the Dongria have become a 16)cause célèbre. On Feb. 5th, Vedanta’s opponents got a boost when the17)Church of England sold it s shares, worth $5.9 million, in the company, citing concerns about policies for compensating those displaced by mining. Three other investors followed on Feb. 18th, selling stakes worth about $3.4 million.

  Conflicts like the one in Niyamgiri are becoming increasingly common in India as the country tries to extract and exploit the mineral wealth in its forests and mountains. India allows state governments to 18)appropriate land for use by private companies provided the people displaced are compensated and resettled. People living on that land cannot object once the state acquires it, and in Orissa the authorities have approved 54 projects worth $46 billion. That process has already displaced 1.4 million people in the state since 2001, according to India’s Rural Development Ministry. The Dongria are challenging this policy in the courts. Says Prafulla Samantara, an activist in Orissa and one of the original 19)petitioners in the case: “How can the state give away land which is not theirs in the first place?”
  The Dongria don’t want to leave their mountain, but that doesn’t mean they want to be left in an untouched state of nature. At one point in the film, Avatar’s hero, Jake Sully, 20)laments about the Na’vi, “They’re not going to make a deal ... There’s nothing that we have that they want.” But that’s not necessarily true for the Dongria or the millions of other so-called tribal people who live in India’s vast 21)stretches of undeveloped forest. While they are largely self-sufficient, living on what they can grow and hunt, they do sell some of their22)produce to traders in neighboring towns. Gautam Navlakha, a volunteer with the People’s Union for Democratic Rights, another civil-liberties group based in New Delhi, says that while the Dongria and other tribal populations 23)are disillusioned with the government’s resettlement schemes, they would welcome real help. Ponds and other simple irrigation projects would make their livelihood less dependent on the 24)monsoon and make their agriculture more productive, allowing them to grow two or three crops a year instead of just one. “They say, ‘You’ve never done anything for us, now please let us be,’” says Navlakha. “‘If you are going to develop this area, then do what we want.’”
  Near the end of the film, the Na’vi fight a long and heroic battle with a 25)corporate 26)militia to save their sacred forest. In real life, a violent conflict is unlikely to end well for the Dongria. The Dongria’s battle has been peaceful so far. While the Dongria possess bows and arrows, they “are not violent people,” says Samantara. “But if the government uses violence, they will 27)retaliate. That is my biggest fear.” If the helicopters head into the Dongria Kondh’s 28)abodes, there won’t be any fearsome, winged 29)Ikran 30)swooping in to save them.