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反思印度青少年自杀潮 Teen Suicides in India


  Deep inside the U-shaped 1)complex of 2)Delhi’s All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), the clock clacks against the heavy silence in 3)psychiatrist Manju Mehta’s 4)chamber. A mother sits huddled in front of her. “I want to say sorry for not listening to you,” she 5)stutters as she talks, her eyes 6)welling with tears. Neither she nor her husband had accepted Mehta’s diagnosis that behind her son’s falling grades and temper 7)tantrums lay a learning disability and severe 8)depression. “Conduct disorder is his way of gaining self-respect,” Mehta had told them. The parents, more interested in improving his school performance, had not 9)heeded the advice, “Don’t put pressure on him.” Just before the annual exams, he had suddenly turned over a new leaf: he was nice to everyone, listened to everything his parents said, met up with people he was fond of. Finally, one afternoon, he took his own life. “I 10)quit,” read the 11)chit lying on his bed.
  精神病专家曼如·梅塔的办公室位于德里市全印度医学科学院一栋U形综合大楼的最里面,墙上的挂钟滴答作响,反衬出室内令人压抑的沉默。一名母亲蜷坐在梅塔对面。“我真后悔,没有听您的劝告,”她断断续续地说,眼里充满泪水。之前,无论是她还是她丈夫都无法接受梅塔的诊断结 果——他们的儿子之所以成绩下降,暴躁易怒,是因为患上了严重的抑郁症和有学习障碍。“行为失常是他获取自尊的一种方式,”当时梅塔告诉他们。但是,她和她的丈夫更关心如何才能提高孩子的学习成绩,而没把梅塔的忠告——“不要对他施加压力”——放在心上。在期末大考到来前夕,孩子突然发生了转变,想要重新开始:他对每个人都很友好,对父母说的每句话都洗耳恭听,和他喜欢的人聚会。然后,一天下午,他自杀了。“我放弃了”,他留在床上的一封短信里写道。
Teen Suicides in India  Being a teenager has never been easy. But in the new millennium, amidst unprecedented prosperity, growing up seems to have become more 12)trying than ever for Indian teens. The 13)grim 14)epithet to their tormented lives is the suicide note. Sometimes they express an inability to cope with pressure, as in the case of a Delhi student who hanged himself from a ceiling fan by his mother’s sari. “Goodbye,” he wrote. “I can’t take the pressure any longer. I love my family and I hope they will understand.” Ever so often there is helplessness: “I am not doing well in exams,” wrote a girl from15)Chandigarh to her parents before she took her life, “I can’t even manage my own affairs. I’ve 16)frittered away my college fees on trivia. No one’s responsible for my death.”
  对一个十几岁的少年来说,生活决非易事。随着新世纪的到来,印度正大步迈向前所未有的繁荣,而与此同时,对印度的青少年而言,成长似乎也变得更加令人“难受”。 那一纸“自杀遗言”便是对他们苦恼人生的残酷概括。有时候他们表示自己无法应对沉重的压力,比如一名来自德里的学生,他用母亲的纱丽缠在吊扇上自缢身亡。“永别了,”他写道,“我再也无法忍受那些压力了。我爱我的家人,希望他们能够理解我。”更多的人在遗书中表现出一种无助感:“我考试成绩一直不好”,来自印度北部城市昌迪加尔的一个女孩在自杀前写给父母的信中说道,“我连自己份内的事都做不好,我的大学学费都浪费在无关紧要的琐事上面了。没有人需要对我的死负责。”
  In India, as many as 12.8 percent of adolescents now suffer from 17)psychiatric disorders, says the Indian Council of Medical Research. But what explains the high-levels of depression? By every measure, urban children have much more—clothes, toys, 18)gadgets—than their parents, who were raised on post-Independence values of thrift and self-sacrifice, ever did. It’s a problem of plenty, say psychologists. Recent studies show that children who have been given too much too soon grow up to be adults who have difficulty coping with life’s disappointments.
  “They have a distorted sense of 19)entitlement that gets in the way of success both in the workplace and in relationships,” says Dr. Gururaj, head of the department of 20)epidemiology at the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMHANS) in21)Bangalore. “They often grow up to be self-centred and 22)self-absorbed, and those are mental-health risks.” A suicide survey which he conducted in 2004 found that 57 percent of youth suicides were sudden acts of frustration.
  New India’s obsession with 23)fancy degrees and anxiety about the future is a real issue. A stream of such parents and children passes through city psychiatrist Aniruddha Deb’s chamber every year “before exams begin and after results are out”. “And they show the same psychological bent—fear of failure,” he says.

  When children are young, parents marvel at their every little accomplishment—school recitations, 24)runner-up prize in swimming. But then a day comes when all these mean nothing. The only 25)premium is in 26)topping the class. “I come across scores of children whose every waking hour is crammed with study-related activities,” he adds. “Everything else that they could do well—sport, music, painting—is pushed to the past. The damage this can do to a child’s self-esteem is enormous. Failure is a word that gives students continuous nightmares. After all, parents don’t give them 27)credit for any activity they excel in, besides studies.” No wonder March to July is the year’s cruellest 28)stretch. With29)boards, college and competitive exams clustered around this time of the year, the pressure to excel can be 30)lethal. There is evidence to suggest that suicides or suicidal behaviour peak around this time.
  Strangely enough, in most cases, family members remain unaware of the 31)inchoate emotional forces running 32)rampant in adolescent minds. Shekhar Sheshadri of NIMHANS says, “This is one of the major reasons why suicide rates are so high. Parents often don’t 33)pick up the signs of disorders when the child 34)internalizes problems and gets 35)bogged down by anxiety, 36)phobias, and academic and socialisation 37)plights.” Any of these may cause a susceptible person to break down and slide into depression.
  School is the other control factor determining the ups and downs of teen lives. On April 4, 2008, a 12-year-old student in 38)Mumbai, tried to kill herself by jumping on the railway track from a 39)flyover. Reason? She had 40)been caught copying red-handed by a teacher the previous day. Her parents were summoned to the school and she was not allowed to take the English examination. The next day, she was 41)barred from sitting for other exams as well, despite 42)profuse pleading and apologies. She returned home and later in the afternoon tried to 43)scale the wall to end her life. Worse, the person who rescued the 44)distraught girl was 45)rebuffed by the school for taking her over to them. New research by AIIMS, 46)probing the teen mind, 47)throws up “school refusal” as a classic cause for adolescent depression.
  48)Medics tell parents to look for dramatic changes in behaviour or appearance, in weight, and in school performance. Any talk about wanting to die or committing suicide should make a parent go on red alert. Yet many families are 49)loath to discuss the topic with their children. “There is this notion about depression, and certainly about suicide, that if you ask or mention the subject, you’re going to make it happen,” says Sheshadri. Quite the contrary; talking with a son or daughter about dark feelings will help 50)assuage the sense of hopelessness the child may have.
  Despite the extent of knowledge today, signs of deep trouble too often go unheeded. “In nearly every case of suicide I have reviewed, clues to the adolescent’s plans were overlooked or51)downplayed,” says Gururaj. “Not intentionally but unknowingly.” Not all suicides can be prevented, but parents who keep an eye on their teenagers and work hard at communicating with them are the ones most likely to save their children’s lives.