有机食品知多少 What the "Organic" Label Really Means
关键词:organic, difference in price, pesticides
Reporter: If you’d walked into an average American supermarket about 20 years ago, you would have been hard-pressed to find an organic label anywhere. Now almost every 1)aisle has something labeled “organic.” The problem for consumers is figuring out exactly what does the label mean.
We caught up with New York University nutrition professor Marion Nestle to help us out.
When somebody’s buying something that says “organic,” like this, what should a consumer expect to be getting?
Marion: Well first, the consumer needs to look for this, which is the 2)USDA organic seal, which means that the production of these particular eggs has been overseen by the Department of Agriculture, by a certifying agency. It means that the chickens were fed organic feed, that the feed was not genetically 3)modified, that they were allowed access to the outdoors, that they weren’t treated with 4)hormones or 5)antibiotics.
Reporter: This chicken, “family farmed,” “grown without antibiotics,” I even see “6)certified humane,” but I don’t see “organic” on it.
Marion: It’s not organic! These chickens are not produced probably using organic feed…
Marion:…and so they don’t meet the Department of Agriculture’s rules for certifying “organic.” But this is…
Reporter: So consumers have to be very careful: things like “natural,” “family farmed” don’t necessarily mean “organic.”
Marion: Absolutely do not necessarily mean “organic.” This is a step in the right direction, but it doesn’t go all the way.
The next question is price, and I wanna come check out the bread. Everything is exactly the same except one’s organic, one has the seal and one’s not, and when I look at the price, there’s about a 60 cent difference in price, so I think to myself, “Should I pay the extra money? What am I really paying for?” Why are you paying more for “organic?”
Marion: Well, what you’re getting here is you’re getting grain that was grown without artificial 7)pesticides, and there’s just more labor that goes into it, and that’s what you’re paying for.
Reporter: Right. If someone can’t afford to buy all “organic,” what should they be concentrating on first? Where should they start?
Marion: I always say start with the berries because they’re the fruits that get the most pesticides, and they’re the one’s most likely to be pesticided. So we have two packages of berries here. This one is “organic” with the USDA seal on it; this one is not. They’re priced the same. I’d buy the “organic.”
1939年，诺斯伯纳勋爵( Lord Northboume)在其著作《Look to the Land》中提出了organic farming（有机耕作）的概念，指整个农场作为一个整体的有机的组织，而相对的，chemical farming（化学耕作）则依靠了imported fertility（额外的施肥）。
日本人的“生意经” Learn the Culture to Do Business in Japan
关键词:Japan, business etiquette, patient
Half a world away, Japan is an 1)enticing business market. But small businesses that are considering doing business in Japan need to know business2)etiquette requires more than practicing a respectful bow.
Adrian Stones (Lived and Worked in Japan for 14 Years): I think, at the 3)outset, you know, I did speak some Japanese, so I thought that was going to be sufficient to open a number of doors at a business level. It was not.
Dean Foster (Dean Foster Associates): I can’t think of two cultures that are more different than Japan and the United States in their business styles. And I think any American going to Japan really needs to understand the way the Japanese think about business in order to be effective with them.
First, know the proper greeting.
Foster: Hold your business card in a proper way, which means with two hands usually with the readable side facing the person you’re giving the card to.
Understand that the Japanese try to avoid conflict.
Foster: So if you ask to Nakasan, “Did you like the terms of the agreement?”, he’s going to say, “Yes, the terms of the agreement are very interesting. Perhaps a few things need some further study.” Well that’s his way of saying that he really doesn’t like the agreement at all, but he’s not gonna be direct about things that are difficult or 4)problematic.
Know there is a language barrier.
Stones: At a more sort of day-to-day personal level, using idioms is probably not a good idea: it’s very hard to translate. Jokes don’t translate so well either unfortunately.
Foster: You want to get out there, you want to go to dinner, you want to go to karaoke, and at these times, this is where you’ll hear the real feelings come out. During the day it’s difficult to hear what they’re really thinking and feeling, particularly if it’s problematic. But over dinner, over some 5)sake, then they’re gonna lean over and they’re gonna tell you one on one what they really think.
Recognize that the Japanese like to make group decisions.
Foster:…so you shouldn’t go to Japan expecting meetings to be opportunities for making decisions. They’re not. They’re 6)vehicles by which you share information, and the decision comes back to you later after the whole team has had a chance to talk about it.
Stones: I just think you should do your homework and be patient. Things will never happen in Japan as fast as you think they will.
Most communication in Japan is non-verbal. Be sensitive to the messages—you are sending out through your body language.
When speaking with someone, do not leave hands in pockets.
Do not lean against a wall or door.
Do not sit with the ankle over the knee.
Sit on the edge of a chair or sofa to show respect.
Touching is taboo in Japan.
Bowing is the common greeting in Japan. However, the handshake is becoming more popular, particularly among those who work with international guests and clients and among young people.
When is a smile not a smile? The Japanese smile to communicate various emotions: anger, embarrassment, sadness, and disappointment. Interpretation depends on context.
Eye contact is thought of as rude in Japan. They will often look down at their shoes or off in the air. Take care to not stare.
Silence in Japan is golden and is often used as a negotiating strategy.