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小红帽:红斗篷,百变心 The Evolution of Riding Hood

  查尔斯·狄更斯曾经说过:“小红帽是我的初恋。我总觉得要是娶了小红帽,我就会知道什么叫做天赐良缘。”是的,那个穿着红斗篷的小女孩身上散发着稚气、纯真和勇敢的气息。但是,有没有人真正地理解红斗篷下面蕴藏的历史故事与文化内涵呢?2003年,美国女作家凯瑟琳·奥兰斯汀出版了Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale(《百变小红帽:一则童话三百年的演变》)——解读了该童话背后的历史典故与文化内涵,揭开了红斗篷下面所有的秘密。而在此,小编特别献上一篇有关该书的书评,供读者朋友们一窥这些潜藏的秘密! ——Mac
Little Red Riding Hood  Forget everything you ever thought you knew about Little Red Riding Hood. In Little Red Riding Hood Uncloaked: Sex, Morality, and the Evolution of a Fairy Tale, the author, Catherine Orenstein, explores the history of the fairy tale, from the French court, 1)Charles Perrault, Hans Christian Anderson, and the Brothers Grimm, to 2)Bruno Bettelheim and 3)Anne Sexton.
  As she explains, “The endeavor of this book is to draw Little Red Riding Hood forth from her literary 4)crypt, to unwrap the protective 5)vellum that 6)mummifies her in the rare book section of the library.”
  In this survey of literature, Orenstein inspects the derivations of Little Red Riding Hood, who has been depicted as a 7)seductress, a victim, a 8)femme fatale, and a 9)she-wolf in various works. Changes in society have dramatically affected the evolution of this story.

  把你所以为你了解的有关《小红帽》的一切都忘掉。在《百变小红帽:一则童话三百年的演变》一书里,作者凯瑟琳·奥兰斯汀从法国宫庭、查尔 斯·佩罗特、汉斯·克里斯蒂安·安徒生、格林兄弟、布鲁诺·贝特尔海姆以及安妮·塞克斯顿这些角度探索了《小红帽》这则童话的历史。
  The Origins of the Fairy Tales   童话的起源
  Fairy tales are fantastical tales, with talking creatures, great heroes, fair maidens, magical and miraculous deeds, and heroic 10)quests. While the tales are often considered part of children’s literature, they can also be horribly 11)grotesque. According to Orenstein, “The first recorded reference to a fairy tale seems to occur in a letter Madame de Sevigne wrote to her daughter in 1677 describing one of ‘the stories they amuse the ladies with at 12)Versailles’.” The tales became popular in French salons, entertaining men and women with 13)utopian musings.
  D’Aulnoy is given credit for publishing the first fairy tale in 1690, but it wasn’t long until Perrault and others carried on the tradition.  
  An Epic Journey Re-invented   《小红帽》改编历程悠久
Little Red Riding Hood  Actually, Little Red Riding Hood has many derivations and can be told in several ways. In Charles Perrault’s tale, the wolf (interpreted as a man who seduces women) hides under the covers, and urges the girl to “climb into bed with me.” The girl comments on “what big” arms, legs, ears, eyes, and teeth the wolf has, which ends with the wolf saying “The better to eat you!” The wolf then “threw himself upon Little Red Riding Hood and ate her up.” In Perrault’s fairy tale, published in 1697, no 14)woodsman comes to rescue her; and Little Red Riding Hood does not save herself.


  It’s a morality tale, warning girls and women that wolves may 15)lurk in every guise.

  Little Red Cap, by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm, is one of the most famous derivations of the Red Riding Hood tale. After the wolf ate Little Red Cap, he went to sleep and his snoring drew the attention of a hunter. The hunter enters the house, sees the sleeping wolf and says: “So here you are, you old 16)sinner...I’ve been looking for you for a long time.” Then, instead of shooting the wolf, he cuts open the wolf and lets out Little Red Cap and her grandmother. The hunter then puts heavy stones in the wolf’s stomach. When the wolf wakes up, he 17)drops dead. The hunter then skins the wolf and goes home. Of course, Little Red Cap has learned her lesson. She will never again 18)stray from the path, or be fooled by a wolf’s deception.


  Not all of the Little Red Riding Hood versions are as19)familiar or as 20)tame. In an oral folktale, The Grandmother’s Tale, the wolf arrives at Grandmother’s house, kills her, and puts her flesh and blood in the 21)pantry. Upon arrival, the wolf tells the girl to eat the flesh and drink the wine (blood) in the pantry. And, as she eats, the cat says, “She is a 22)slut who eats the flesh and drinks the blood of her granny.” Despite the bloody 23)gore of this tale, the girl manages to escape from the wolf.

  From there, Orenstein discusses the case of Stubbe Peeter, a man who was accused of taking on the form of a 24)werewolf, as he 25)enticed men, women, and children to their deaths. According to Orenstein, “Even though Stubbe Peeter’s trial was 26)sensational, his crime was not unique. Indeed, in certain areas, at this particular moment in history, it seems to have been almost commonplace.”

  In more recent years, Little Red Riding Hood has changed dramatically, appearing in movies, commercials, advertisements, cartoons, and more. She has also been reinvented by modern writers like Anne Sexton and 27)Gwen Strauss. Feminist analysis also plays a part in more recent interpretations of the Little Red Riding Hood tale.

  最近几年,随着“小红帽”的形象出现在电影、商界、广告界、卡通片和更多领域,其角色也大为改变。她还被安 妮·塞克斯顿和格温·斯特劳斯这些现代小说家彻底改造了一番。在对《小红帽》这则童话的新近解读中,女权主义分析起了一定作用。
  Orenstein features a quote by 28)Susan Brownmiler, who says: “Fairy tales are full of vague 29)dread, a 30)catastrophe that seems to befall only little girls...There are frightening male figures abroad in the woods—we call them wolves, among other names—and females are helpless before them.”

  奥兰斯汀还特别引用了苏珊·布朗米勒的一句话:“童话里充满含糊的恐怖警示——一场似乎只会降临在小女孩身上的灾祸……森林里到处是可怕的男性角色——‘狼’只是他们其中的一个代 称——女性在他们面前是多么怯懦无助。”
  According to Orenstein, “Modern fiction writers also frequently incorporate themes of sexual 31)assault in their retellings of Little Red Riding Hood.” Through these explorations of the tale, women would “reclaim” the tale. The story lasts because it has evolved through time and cultures. Orenstein says: “The truth is that the real world, as in the fairy tale, we are a bit of everything: a 32)spectrum of possibilities, interwoven and interrelated.”

  As she explains, “Over the years, by intention or by intuition, the tale of Little Red Riding Hood has explored the shifting 33)fault lines of morality, sexuality, and gender.”