不惧权威，敢于质疑 Young and the 1)Perceptive
It has been more than three years since the beginning of the Wall Street financial crisis, yet we continue to hear about new evidence of 2)glaring errors and widespread 3)misdoings. Even the smartest minds in finance are left scratching their heads: how did we not catch any of this sooner?
When I hear this 4)refrain, I am reminded of 5)Boris Goldovsky. Goldovsky, who died in 2001, was a legend in opera circles, best remembered for his commentary during the Saturday 6)matinee radio broadcasts of the Metropolitan Opera. But he was also a piano teacher. And it is as a teacher that he made a lasting—7)albeit unintentional—contribution to our understanding of why seemingly obvious errors go undetected for so long.
One day, a student of his was practicing a piece by 8)Brahms when Goldovsky heard something wrong. He stopped her and told her to fix her mistake. The student looked confused; she said she had played the notes as they were written. Goldovsky looked at the music and, to his surprise, the girl had indeed played the printed notes correctly—but there was an apparent 9)misprint in the music.
At first, the student and the teacher thought this misprint was confined to their edition of the 10)sheet music alone. But further checking revealed that all other editions contained the same incorrect note. Why, wondered Goldovsky, had no one—the composer, the publisher, the 11)proofreader, scores of accomplished pianists—noticed the error? How could so many experts have missed something that was so obvious to a 12)novice?
This 13)paradox intrigued Goldovsky. So over the years he gave the piece to a number of musicians who were skilled sight readers of music—which is to say they had the ability to play from a printed 14)score for the first time without practicing. He told them there was a misprint somewhere in the score, and asked them to find it. He allowed them to play the piece as many times as they liked and in any way that they liked. But not one musician ever found the error. Only when Goldovsky told his subjects which 15)bar, or 16)measure, the mistake was in did most of them spot it.