成为珍·古道尔 Being Jane Goodall: Fifty Years at 1)Gombe
Most of us don’t 2)enter upon our life’s destiny at any neatly 3)discernible time. Jane Goodall did. On the morning of July 14th, 1960, she stepped onto a pebble beach along a remote stretch of the east shore of 4)Lake Tanganyika. It was her first arrival at what was then called the Gombe Stream 5)Game Reserve, a small protected area that had been established by the British colonial government back in 1943. She had brought a tent, a few 6)tin plates, a cup without a handle, a 7)shoddy pair of 8)binoculars, an African cook named Dominic, and—as a companion, at the insistence of people who feared for her safety in the wilds of pre-independence 9)Tanganyika—her mother. She had come to study 10)chimpanzees. Or anyway, to try. 11)Casual observers expected her to fail. One person, the 12)paleontologist Louis Leakey, who had recruited her to the task up in 13)Nairobi, believed she might succeed.
Jane and her mother spent the afternoon putting their camp in order. Then, around 5 p.m., somebody reported having seen a chimpanzee. “So off we went,” Jane wrote later that night in her journal, “and there was the chimp.” She had gotten only a distant, indistinct glimpse. “It moved away as we 14)drew level with the crowd of fishermen gazing at it, and, though we climbed the neighbouring slope, we didn’t see it again.” But she had noticed, and recorded, some bent branches flattened together in a nearby tree: a chimp nest. That 15)datum, that first nest, was the starting point of what has become one of the most significant ongoing sagas in modern 16)field biology: the continuous, 17)minutely detailed, 50-year study, by Jane Goodall and others, of the behavior of the chimps of Gombe.
Young Goodall had no scientific18)credentials when she began, not even an undergraduate degree. She was a bright, motivated secretarial school graduate from England who had always loved animals and dreamed of studying them in Africa. She came from a family of strong women, little money, and absent men. During the early weeks at Gombe she struggled, 19)groping for a methodology, losing time to a fever that was probably 20)malaria, hiking many miles in the forested mountains, and glimpsing few chimpanzees, until an elderly male with21)grizzled chin 22)whiskers extended to her a 23)tentative, startling gesture of trust. She named the old chimp David Greybeard.
The issue of how to study chimpanzees, and of what can be 24)inferred from behavioral observations, has faced Jane Goodall since early in her career. It began 25)coming into focus after her first field season, when Louis Leakey informed Jane of his next bright idea for shaping her life: He would get her into a Ph.D. program in 26)ethology at Cambridge University. Once enrolled at Cambridge, she found herself27)crosswise with departmental elders and the prevailing 28)certitudes of the field. “It was a bit shocking to be told I’d done everything wrong. Everything.” By then she had 15 months of field data from Gombe, most of it gathered through patient observation of individuals she knew by 29)monikers such as David Greybeard and Fifi. Such personification didn’t play well at Cambridge; to 30)impute individuality and emotion to nonhuman animals was 31)anthropomorphism, not ethology. “Fortunately, I thought back to my first teacher, when I was a child, who taught me that that wasn’t true.” Her first teacher had been her dog, Rusty. “You cannot share your life in a meaningful way with any kind of animal with a reasonably well-developed brain and not realize that animals have personalities.” She pushed back against the prevailing view and on February 9th, 1966, she became Dr. Jane Goodall.
In 1968 the little game reserve underwent its own graduation, becoming 32)Tanzania’s Gombe National Park. By then Jane was receiving research funding from the 33)National Geographic Society. She was married and a mother and famous worldwide, owing in part to her articles for this magazine and her 34)comely, forceful presence in a televised film, Miss Goodall and the Wild Chimpanzees. She had institutionalized her field camp, in order to fund and 35)perpetuate it, as the Gombe Stream Research Center. In 1971 she published In the Shadow of Man, her account of the early Gombe studies and adventures, which became a best seller. Around the same time, she began hosting students and graduate researchers to help with chimp-data collection and other research at Gombe.
Impelled by broader 36)imperatives, Jane ended her career as a field biologist in 1986, just after publication of her great scientific book, The Chimpanzees of Gombe. Since then she has lived as an advocate, a traveling lecturer, a woman driven by a sense of public mission. Her 37)first cause, which arose from her years at Gombe, was improving the grim treatment 38)inflicted on chimpanzees held in many medical research labs. Combining her toughness and moral outrage with her personal charm and willingness to interact graciously, she achieved some negotiated successes. She also founded39)sanctuaries for chimps who could be freed from 40)captivity, including many orphaned by the 41)bushmeat trade. That work led to her concerns about human conduct toward other species. She established a program called Jane Goodall’s Roots & Shoots, encouraging young people around the world to become active in projects that promote greater concern for animals, the environment, and the human community.
She now spends about 300 days a year on the road, giving countless interviews and schoolroom talks, lecturing in big venues, meeting with government officials, raising money to turn the wheels of the 42)Jane Goodall Institute. Occasionally she sneaks away into a forest or onto a prairie, sometimes with a few friends, to watch chimps or 43)sandhill cranes or black-footed 44)ferrets and to restore her energy and sanity. It’s important to remember that the meaning of Gombe, after half a century, is bigger than Jane Goodall’s life and work. But make no mistake: Her life and work have been very, very big.