First Nine Years 九年之战,毫无进展
After two years of preparation, the Greek fleet2) and army assembled in the port of Aulis in Boeotia3), and were ready to set sail. Here Agamemnon in hunting killed a stag4) which was sacred to Artemis5), and the goddess in return visited the army with pestilence6), and produced a calm7) which prevented the ships from leaving the port. Calchas8) thereupon announced that the wrath of Artemis could only be appeased9) by the sacrifice of a maiden on her altar10), and that none other but the daughter of the offender would be acceptable. Agamemnon, however reluctant, yielded11) his consent12), and sent his daughter Iphigenia13), who was to be married to Achilles, to Artemis.
On hearing this, Thetis, the mother of Achilles, went to Zeus's palace and asked him to make the Greeks repent14) of their injustice to Achilles by granting success to the Trojan army. Zeus agreed, and in the following battle, the Trojans were completely successful. The Greeks were driven from the field and took refuge15) in their ships. Thus the war fought on and off for nine years altogether without any decisive results.
Achilles Refused to Fight 再次被辱,拒绝参战
For nine years the Grecian armies couldn't land on the main land of Troy, so they constantly harassed16) the neighboring states. In one small battle, Agamemnon had taken a maiden named Chryseis17) as his slave. Her father Chryses, a priest of Apollo, begged Agamemnon to return her to him. Agamemnon refused. Apollo thus sent pestilence among the Greeks.
Calchas correctly determined the source of the trouble but would not speak unless Achilles vowed to protect him. Achilles did so and Calchas declared Chryseis must be returned to her father. Agamemnon agreed, but then he turned to hate Achilles and asked that Achilles' battle prize Briseis should be brought to replace Chryseis. Angry at the dishonor18), Achilles refused to fight again.
Achilles Reentered the Fight 挚友被杀,重返战场
The Greeks had to fight without Achilles, and they lost some of their best heroes. Though Achilles was not on the field, he was eager to fight at heart, so he called Patroclus, his dearest friend, to inquire about the results from Nestor19).
Arriving at Nestor's tent, Patroclus saw Machaon and many others wounded. When he was to leave, Nestor stayed him and said, "You may win Achilles back to our common cause; but if not, let him at least send his soldiers to the field. If you, Patroclus, could be in his armor, and perhaps the very sight of it may drive back the Trojans."
Patroclus was strongly moved with this address, and hastened20) back to Achilles. He told Achilles the sad condition of affairs at the camp. Achilles, at the news, felt regretted but only agreed that Patroclus could lead their army to the field and lend him his armor. The Trojans, at the sight of the well-known armor, struck with terror, looked everywhere for refuge.
But now came a change of fortune. Patroclus forgot what Achilles had advised him, and came too near to Hector, and was recognized. Hector, pressing forward, fought with skill and finally pierced Patroclus with his spear. Patroclus fell mortally wounded and died soon.
Achilles heard the fate of his friend with such distress that some feared that he would destroy himself. Thetis, hastened to him to inquire the cause. She asked Hephaestus to fabricate21) a splendid armor for Achilles.
The first glow of pleasure that Achilles had felt since the death of Patroclus was at the sight of this splendid armor. Then Achilles went forth to battle inspired with a rage and thirst for vengeance22).
The bravest warriors fled before Achilles or fell by his spear. He even killed Hector, the first son of Priam.
Achilles' Death 致命一击,命丧圣殿
During the twelve-day truce23) for Hector's funeral, Achilles spotted Polyxena, the daughter of Priam, with her brother Troilus, who was watering his horse at a fountain. Despite the truce, Achilles killed Troilus. Knowing that Achilles was smitten24) with his daughter, Priam thought of a way to end the conflict. What if he allowed Achilles to marry Polyxena as the price for ending the war?
Polyxena embraced25) her father's plan. Seemingly, she loved the famous warrior who had killed her brothers. But Polyxena was a loyal sister. She learned that Achilles had a weak spot on his heel. She and Hecuba collaborated26) with her brother Paris. Together they concocted27) a plan. Polyxena would convince Achilles to make a sacrifice in the temple of Apollo, where their marriage would soon be celebrated. Paris, completely hidden from view, would be waiting in the wings with his bow and arrow.
Agreeing to make a sacrifice, Achilles went to the temple of Apollo. Concerned for his safety, Odysseus and two others followed Achilles to the temple.
As Achilles knelt28) at the altar, Paris raised his bow. He sent a poison arrow toward Achilles and, with the help of Apollo, the arrow entered the only vulnerable part of Achilles' body: his heel. In the arms of Odysseus, Achilles died a painful death. Protecting the remains of his friend, Ajax prevented Paris from desecrating29) the body and returned the body to the Achaean30) camp.
1. wrath [rC:W] n. 愤怒,愤慨
2. fleet [fli:t] n. (常指在统一指挥下有固定活动地区的)舰队
3. Boeotia [bI5EuFIE] n. 皮奥夏[希腊中东部一地区](或译比奥夏)
4. stag [stA^] n. 成年牡鹿(尤指牧赤鹿)
5. Artemis [5B:tImIs] n.【希神】阿耳特弥斯(月神和狩猎女神)
6. pestilence [5pestIlEns] n.瘟疫
7. calm [kB:m] n. 平静;无风;【气】(蒲福风级)零级风(风速小于每小时1英里)
8. Calchas [5kAlkEs] n. 【希神】卡尔克斯(特洛伊战争中希腊军队中的阿波罗奉祀祭司和随军占卜师)
9. appease [E5pi:z] vt. 平息(怒气、纷争等)
10. altar [5C:ltE(r)] n. 祈祷和祭拜的场所
11. yield [ji:ld] vt. 给,给予
12. consent [kEn5sent] n. 同意;准许,赞同
13. Iphigenia [I7fIdVI5naIE] n. 【希神】依菲琴尼亚(迈锡尼王Agamemnon的女儿)
14. repent [rI5pent] vi. 后悔,懊悔。常和介词of连用。
15. take refuge: 避难;躲避;隐蔽。refuge [5refju:dV] n. 躲避;避难;庇护
16. harass [5hArEs] vt. 不断侵扰,骚扰,扰乱
17. Chryseis [kraI5si:Is] n. 【希神】克律塞伊斯(阿波罗的祭司之女)
18. dishonor [dIs5CnE(r)] n. 侮辱
19. Nestor [5nestC:(r), -tE(r)] n. 【希神】内斯特(特洛伊战争时期希腊的贤明长者)
20. hasten [5heIsEn] vi. 赶快,赶紧;急忙;急行
21. fabricate [5fAbrIkeIt] vt. 制造,制作
22. vengeance [5vendVEns] n. 报复;报仇,复仇
23. truce [tru:s] n. 休战,停战;休战协定
24. smite [smaIt] vt. [常用被动语态]深深影响,打动
25. embrace [Im5breIs] vt. (欣然)接受;(乐意)利用,采取
26. collaborate [kE5lAbEreIt] vi. 勾结
27. concoct [kEn5kCkt] vt. 策划
28. kneel [ni:l] vi. 跪着
29. desecrate [5desIkreIt] vt. 亵渎;把(神圣之物)供俗用
30. Achaean [E5ki:En] adj. 希腊的
Hector (赫克托耳)是一位特洛伊名将,他本身并不愿意参与战斗,但是亲临战场时也丝毫不怯懦。在明知作战无益的情况下,还是身先士卒,英勇杀敌。但是后来,这个词的意思逐渐演变成了“虚张声势的人;恃强凌弱的人”,用作动词时意为“威吓;欺凌”。例如: He hectored his little brother into giving him all his pocket money. 他威吓他的小弟弟,逼他把所有的零花钱都交了出来。
Nestor (内斯特)是特洛伊战争时期希腊的贤明长者,现如今,这个词意为“(某一行业或领域中)贤明的老前辈;聪明的长者”。例如: Peter served as a Nestor in his team. 彼得是团队中的前辈。