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史蒂夫·乔布斯:改变世界的梦想家 Steve Jobs: Master of Innovation



史蒂夫·乔布斯:改变世界的梦想家 Steve Jobs: Master of Innovation  The American business success collective has volumes of examples of visionaries who have met pressing societal needs or created rich new markets. Among those pages, Jobs is a tutelary1), a rough-about-the-edges2) company founder who has rattled3) the world, was banished from the kingdom he built during tumultuous4) times, and then returned to rescue and take Apple to loftier heights. During the past 34 years, he has overcome ambitious missteps, competitive obstacles and recent health issues to change the way people work, communicate and entertain themselves. Since rejoining Apple in 1996 after an 11-year exile, he has rescued it from near collapse, introduced meteoric5) products such as the iPod and iPhone, and cemented his role as the oracle of consumer tech gadgetry. In naming Jobs “CEO of the Decade” in November 2009, Fortune magazine said history will remember him as “an individual who relentlessly pursued new opportunities,” chasing “new possibilities without being deterred by whatever obstacles he encountered.”

  Apple Seeds

  Jobs and Wozniak met in 1970; Wozniak was 21 and Jobs 16. Northern California’s Santa Clara Valley (pre-Silicon Valley), where Jobs and Wozniak grew up, was a churning place for engineers and their ilk, fueled by Lockheed6)’s booming defense business. Computing power was confined to gigantic7), expensive machinery outside the realm of most businesses.

  Wozniak worked for Hewlett-Packard and Jobs at Atari as they scrambled with their groundbreaking work. He and Wozniak met regularly at informal Homebrew Computer Club meetings where locals compared notes and ideas in the bubbling information technology pool.

  On April Fools’ Day in 1976, Wozniak, Jobs and Jobs’ former Atari colleague Ron Wayne signed papers forming Apple Computer. Wayne resigned 12 days later because he decided the financial risk was too great. It was Wozniak’s brilliance and Jobs’ dogged determination that were the engines. Jobs scavenged8) for parts and hounded “Woz” to finish the Apple I and then the Apple II, which Wozniak single-handedly designed. It ignited the personal-computer revolution in 1977.

  A Devastating Fallout

  In 1985, tensions between Sculley9) (who joined Apple as president and chief executive officer in 1983) and Jobs about the direction of the company culminated in Jobs trying to oust10) Sculley in a palace coup. It failed, and Sculley stripped the founder of all his operational responsibilities. By September, Jobs was gone. Jobs sold his Apple stock. Bloodied but not beaten, Jobs recovered from the very high-profile exit.

 Steve Jobs 苹果笔记本电脑Imac  “I was lucky—I found what I loved to do early in life,” Jobs said during the Stanford commencement address. “Woz and I started Apple in my parents’ garage when I was 20. We worked hard, and in 10 years Apple had grown from just the two of us in a garage into a $2 billion company with over 4,000 employees. We had just released our finest creation—the Macintosh—a year earlier, and I had just turned 30. And then I got fired.

  “How can you get fired from a company you started? Well, as Apple grew we hired someone who I thought was very talented to run the company with me, and for the first year or so things went well. But then our visions of the future began to diverge and eventually we had a falling out11). When we did, our board of directors sided with12) him. So at 30 I was out. And very publicly out. What had been the focus of my entire adult life was gone, and it was devastating.”

  Jobs talked about how he thought about fleeing the valley because of his very public failure, but he slowly realized he still loved what he did. He decided to start over.

  A New Day

  “I didn’t see it then, but it turned out that getting fired from Apple was the best thing that could have ever happened to me. The heaviness of being successful was replaced by the lightness of being a beginner again, less sure about everything. It freed me to enter one of the most creative periods of my life.”

  Jobs started NeXT Computer Inc., which failed in its attempt to sell elegant, expensive black computers to the business market, and by 1993, shifted its focus to the sale and development of its NextStep operating system. In 1986, however, Jobs stepped deeply into the entertainment world when he purchased the Pixar computer animation studios from George Lucas for less than $10 million, and then immersed himself in13) this new work.

  Since then, Jobs’ work got faster and more furious. By 1993, Sculley resigned from a beleaguered14), battered Apple. Disney released Pixar’s first movie, Toy Story, in 1995, which was an astounding success and leap forward in animation quality. In December 1996, Apple bought NeXT for $430 million in a move full of intrigue, bringing Jobs back into the fold. By September, 1997, Jobs became iCEO (interim15)), and returned the company to profitability by January 1998.

  The Comeback

  One of the first things Jobs did upon his return was to pack up all the company’s papers and old machines and send the materials to Stanford University for archiving.

  “[We] cleared out the cobwebs and said, ‘Let’s stop looking backward here,’ ” Jobs explained at the 2007 conference. “It’s all about what happens tomorrow. Because you can’t look back and say, ‘Well, gosh, you know, I wish I hadn’t gotten fired, I wish I was there, I wish this, I wish that.’ It doesn’t matter. Let’s go invent tomorrow rather than worrying about what happened yesterday.”

  When Apple launched its first iMac in 2001, its personal-computer market share had dwindled to 2 percent. In 2001, Apple introduced the landscape-changing iPod, iTunes and its OS X 10.0 operating system, signifying its return as a champion innovator. Apple, once again, proved that reports of its demise were greatly exaggerated. In a strategy shift, Apple also opened its first retail store in Maclean, Va.
  2001年,苹果推出第一代iMac机的时候,它在个人电脑市场所占的份额已经萎缩到2%。2001年,苹果公司推出了具有里程碑意义的iPod、iTunes产品以及OS X 10.0操作系统,标志着苹果重新回归其创新世界的领军地位。苹果又一次证实了那些宣称“苹果已死”的报道是多么夸大其词、荒诞不经。随着战略的转移,苹果也建立了自己的第一家零售店,地点在弗吉尼亚州的麦克林。

  “Jobs gave a speech once, where he talked about, in a certain sense, ‘We [Apple] build the products that we want to use ourselves,’ ” Microsoft’s Gates said in 2007. “He’s really pursued that with incredible taste and elegance that has had a huge impact on the industry. And his ability to always come around and figure out where that next bet should be has been phenomenal.”

  Jobs returned to the top of the business world, but life held another challenge for him. His diagnosis, treatment and recovery from pancreatic16) cancer in 2004 reinforced his will to be, in co-founder Wozniak’s words, a “move-the-world-forward” visionary.

  “Follow Your Heart”

  “Have the courage to follow your heart and intuition. They somehow already know what you truly want to become. Everything else is secondary.” Jobs recounted in the Stanford address in 2005.

  In 2005, Apple introduced the iPod Nano, the Video iPod and the iPod Shuffle. In January 2006, Jobs sold the award-winning Pixar group to the Walt Disney Co. for about $7.4 billion in Disney stock. In 2007, Apple launched the iPhone, followed by its Apps store in 2008. Those products vaulted17) Apple from turmoil into one of the world’s largest and most respected companies.
  2005年,苹果推出了iPod Nano MP3播放器、iPod视频播放器和iPod Shuffle超小型数码播放器。2006年1月,乔布斯将多次获奖的皮克斯工作团队出售给迪斯尼公司,获得价值74亿美元的迪斯尼股票。2007年,苹果推出了iPhone,紧接着,2008年,又建立了自己的应用软件商店。这些产品的推出,使苹果从一个烂摊子一跃成为世界上最大、最受人尊敬的公司之一。

  “Steve Jobs is a singular persona in our culture,” says NewDealDesign’s founder Amit. “He, more than anyone else, made utilitarian18) digital technology merge into a rich cultural experience. Without him, most of the tech world would have relegated culture to a decorative role, rather than a substantive element of product and service innovation. His impact is so profound on our culture, our way of thinking and our approach to smart technology, that I would consider him one of the most influential cultural creators of the past century.”

  Redrawing Boundaries

  Entrepreneur and author Guy Kawasaki had two stints19) with Apple (1983~1987, 1995~1997) as a company “evangelist20)” or product super-advocate. Though no longer connected to the company, he remains a product loyalist and observer. Kawasaki maintains it is Jobs’ extraordinary vision that allows Apple to keep redrawing industry—and modern culture’s—boundaries.

   “Jobs is a magnetic21) pitchman who sells his ideas with a flair22) that turns prospects23) into customers and customers into evangelists,” writes Carmine Gallo, who is a communication skills coach.

  “Over and over again he has turned his eye and his energy—and at times, it has seemed, his entire being—to what might be gained by creating a new offering or taking an unorthodox strategic path,” Harvard Business School professor and author Nancy F. Koehn wrote in Fortune in 2009.

   “When Bill and I first met each other and worked together in the early days, generally, we were both the youngest guys in the room,” he said during that 2007 joint appearance with Gates. “And now, I’m the oldest guy in the room most of the time. And that’s why I love being here.”

  Three years later, Jobs hasn’t gotten any younger, but arguably the biggest innovator of his generation clearly plans to keep stirring the pot.

  1. tutelary [5tju:tIlErI] n. 守护神   2. rough about the edges:尚未完善,有缺点但有潜力
  3. rattle [5rAtl] vt. 使颤动出声   4. tumultuous [tju5mQltjuEs] adj. 喧嚣的,骚乱的
  5. meteoric [7mi:tI5CrIk] adj. 迅速成功(名)的   6. Lockheed:洛克希德公司,美国飞机与导弹制造公司
  7. gigantic [dVaI5^AntIk] adj. 巨大的,庞大的   8. scavenge [5skAvIndV] vi. 从废物中提取
  9. Sculley:指美国商界名人约翰·斯卡利。他于1970~1977年间担任百事可乐公司的副总裁职务,于1977年升为百事可乐公司总裁。而在1983年他离开百事可乐,转而出任苹果公司总裁,后于1995年离开苹果公司。
  10. oust [aust] vt. 驱逐   11. fall out:闹翻,离队
  12. side with:与(某人)站在同一边,和(某人)抱同样的见解   13. immerse ... in:使沉浸在,使专心于
  14. beleaguer [bI5li:^E] vt. 围困,困扰   15. interim [5IntErIm] adj. 临时的
  16. pancreatic [7pANkrI5AtIk] adj. 胰腺的   17. vault [vC:lt] vt. 使一跃而成名,使一跃而至
  18. utilitarian [7ju:tIlI5teErIEn] adj. 功利主义的,实用主义的   19. stint [stInt] n. 任期
  20. evangelist [I5vAndVIlIst] n. 福音传道者   21. magnetic [mA^5netIk] adj. 有磁性的,有吸引力的
  22. flair [fleE] n. 天资,才能;特殊的才干   23. prospect [5prCspekt] n. 可能的顾客