1. after 在……之后(引导时间状语从句)
You will probably discover many others after you have tried these. 试做完这些之后你可能会发现很多其他东西。
Chichester did it all by himself, even after the main steering device had been damaged by gales(大风).甚至在主要的掌舵装置都被大风弄坏之后，全由基切斯特驾驶着这只船。
Queen Elizabeth Ⅱ knighted him with the very sword that Queen Elizabeth Ⅰ had used almost 400 years earlier to knight Sir Francis Drake after he had sailed round the world for the first time. 伊丽莎白二世就是用这把剑封他为爵士的。弗朗西斯·德雷克第一次环球航行之后，伊丽莎白一世在四百年前就曾经用它封弗朗西斯·德雷克为爵士的。
After I made observations for a week, Mr. Hobbs asked me for an oral report of my findings. 我观察一周后，侯伯斯先生要我口叙一下我发现的问题。
2. although (=though) 虽然……但是(引导让步状语从句)，在汉语中“虽然”和“但是”是两个词，而在英语中表示此概念的是一个词。我们要么用although，要么用but，但although和but不能同时用在一个句子中表示“虽然……但是”
And although you may not like it, if she chooses your doorway as her place to sleep in the night, it is as morally hard to turn her away as it is a lost dog. 虽然你未必喜欢，但如果她选中你的门廊作为她夜间栖息之地，从道义上来讲，你就很难将她赶走，就像你很难赶走一条丧家之犬一样。
One quasi bag lady spends about eight hours every day at the foot of the main escalator in a railroad station, although she rents a room in a cheap hotel in the neighbourhood. 有位准流浪女士尽管在附近一家便宜旅馆里租有一间房，她还是每天在火车站中央自动楼梯下呆八小时。
Although Jefferson lived more than 200 years ago, there is much that we can learn from him today.虽然杰斐逊生活在两百年以前，但今天我们仍能从他那里学到很多东西。
Although signs of dishonesty in school, business, and government seem much more numerous in recent years than in the past, could it be that we are getting better at revealing such dishonesty? 虽然学校、商场和政府中的作弊和欺诈行为近年来比过去多得多，但是不是由于我们越来越善于揭露这类不诚实行为的缘故呢?
Although the Republic may have been born in the East, it had spent most of its time and energies since then moving west.虽然(美利坚)共和国诞生于东部，但建国以后花费了大量的时间和精力向西部开拓。
3. and 和，并且(连接两个并列或对等的成分：主语，谓语，宾语，表语或分句)
It's important to set aside time for relaxation, hobbies, and entertainment as well. 还要留出时间进行休息，发展自己的爱好和娱乐活动。
Later when you begin to read you will recognize less important material and you may skip some of these portions. 之后，在阅读时，你就会知道哪些内容是不重要的，这样就可跳过这些不重要的部分。
After all, eighty was a special birthday, another decade lived or endured just as you chose to look at it.不管怎么说，八十大寿毕竟非同一般——你又活了十年，或者说又熬过了十年，是活是熬，全在于你怎么看了。
A different form of reading might also be done, as it was in the past: reading aloud. 也可以用不同的方式阅读，如过去一样——朗读。
Sam set out to improve efficiency at the shirt factory but, as we find out later in this unit, his plans turned out not quite as he had expected. 萨姆着手提高衬衫厂的效率了，但正如我们将在本课后半部分发现的，他的计划实施结果跟他原先预料的并不完全一样。
Many educators feel that as students gain confidence in themselves and their abilities, they are less likely to cheat. 很多教育学家认为，当学生对自己和自己的能力有了信心以后，他们就不大可能作弊了。
Intelligent as she was, she had not much insight. 尽管她很聪明，但她没眼力。
Much as I admire him as a writer(=Although／though I admire him a great deal), I do not like him as a man. 他作为作家，我非常敬幕他，但他作为普通人，我并不喜欢他。
5. as…as 和……一样，与……几乎一样(连接词与词、短语与短语或引导方式状语从句)
She paused a moment and looked at the boy standing awkwardly as near the door as he could be and still be inside the house. 她停了一会儿，看了看那个男孩，只见他尽量靠近门口站，但仍让自己立在房内，样子很尴尬。
He has to feel that he's as good as and probably better than any other surgeon in the world. 他必须这样认为：他跟世上的所有外科大夫一样出色，或许比他们都强。
If what researchers are saying is true, a life lived without fantasies and daydreams isn't as rich and rewarding as life can be. 如果研究人员所说的是真的，那么没有想入非非、白日做梦的生活就不可能是丰富多彩和富有成就的。
6. as(so) far as 就……而论，据……(引导方式状语从句)
What does this mean as far as our flyiny saucer program is concerned? 就我们的飞蝶计划来说这意味着什么呢?
As far as I could see, your behavior is unjustifitable. 就我看来，你的行为是不合情理的。
Yet, when anything went wrong with my car I hastened to him with it, watched him anxiously as he explored its vitals, and listened to his pronouncements as though they were divine oracles —— and he always fixed my car.(然而，每当我的汽车出了毛病，我总是急急忙忙去找他，焦急地注视着他检查汽车的主要部位，恭听着他的见解，仿佛聆听神谕一般——而他总能把我的汽车修好。
1) As long ［A］ as I know, the result ［B］ fell short of ［C］ our expectations ［D］ .
7. as if (=as though) 好像(引导条件状语从句)。它们引导的从句中，动词一般用虚拟语气，be通常用were这个形式，不管是什么人称
After succeeding in sailing round Cape Horn, Chichester sent the following radio message to London:“I feel as if I had wakened from a nightmare.”他胜利地航海到好望角之后，基切斯特向伦敦发出如下电文：“我感觉好像从恶梦中醒来。”
He jumped back as if he had been stung, and the blood rushed into his wrinkled face.他向后一跳，仿佛被什么东西螫了一下似地，他那张布满皱纹的脸顿时涨得通红。
He felt awkward and almost as if he alone were responsible for what happened.他感到很尴尬，好像他自己对发生的一切负责。
8. as(so) long as 只要(=only if 引导条件状语从句)
But it is now thought that this is not so, and as long as the brain is given plenty of exercise it keeps its power. 但现在人们认为，情况并非如此。只要大脑给予充分运用，它就会保持其机能。
I don't care, as long as she lets me be with her too. 只要她能让我也能和她在一起，我不在乎。
2) So far ［A］ as he does ［B］ his work,I don’t mind ［C］ what time he arrives ［D］ at the office.
9. as soon as 一……就(引导时间状语从句)
Go over your notes as soon as you can after class. 课后要及时复习笔记。
Yes, but we shall proceed as soon as the Grubstart gives us the added funds.是的，但埃格拉布贷款基金会把追加的资金一拿给我们，我们就会立即实施这一计划。
10. as well (as) 也，以及，还；和；不仅(连接并列成分或从句)
It's important to set aside time for relaxation, hobbies, and entertainment as well. 还要留出时间休息，发展自己的爱好和娱乐活动。
Skimming helps double your reading speed and improves your comprehension as well. 略读使你的阅读速度快一倍同时也提高你的理解力。
Review important points mentioned in class as well as points you remain confused about. 复习课上讲的重点，还要看看那些你不懂的地方。
For the first time Venusian scientists managed to land a satellite on the planet Earth, and it has been sending back signals as well as photographs ever since. 金星上的科学家首次把一颗卫星成功地送上了地球，此后卫星便不断地发回信号和照片。
11. because 因为 (引导原因状语从句，注意：汉语中有“……原因是因为……”，而英语中reason不和because连用)
3) The reason ［A］ I didn’t go to the meeting was ［B］ because ［C］ I got an appointment ［D］ .
12. before 在……之前(引导时间状语从句)
This means looking over a passage quickly before you begin to read it more carefully.这就是说，在细读之前先要略读一下文章。
We don't know what it is made of, but it could give us a lot of trouble and we shall have to make further tests before we send a Venus Being there. 我们不知道它是由什么构成的，但这给我们带来很多麻烦，而且在向那里(地球)送金星人之前，我们还要做大量的试验。
He practiced crop rotation and soil conservation a century before these became standard practice,and he invented a plow superior to any other in existence. 在人们普遍利用农作物轮作和土壤保持的作法前一个世纪，他就这样做了。
13. besides 除了……之外(介词，也把它归入这一章)
But teaching offers something besides money and power: it offers love.但教学还会带来钱和权力之外的东西：那便是爱。
Jefferson believed that a free man obtains knowledge from many sources besides books and that personal investigation is important.杰弗逊认为：一个自由人除了书本之外还可从其他地方获取知识，而且个人调查研究也很重要。
14 both … and … 和；不但……而且；两者都……(连接两个对等的词或词组)
Furthermore, it(weekly schedule) will enable you to plan your activities so that you have adequate time for both work and play.而且，它(每周日程安排)能帮你安排你的一切活动，使你有充足的时间学习和娱乐。
What makes it rather disturbing was the arbitrary circumstances both of my arrest and my subsequent fate in court. 这次经历令人可恼之处在于围绕着我的被捕以及随后法庭上审讯而出现的种种武断专横的情况。
Yet, as we shall see later, almost miraculous changes have occurred both in grades of students, and in the earning capacity of salesmen —— when they were prevailed upon to change their selfimages. 然而，当他们被说服改变他们的自我形象后，正如我们后边将看到的，学生的成绩和推销员的挣钱能力发生了几乎奇迹般的变化。
4) Scales(鱼鳞) both help to protect ［A］ fish ［B］ against ［C］ disease and infection or ［D］ serve as an external skeleton(骨胳) preserving body shape.
15. but 但(引导并列从句，表示转折)
5) Until the ninth century,written records were not actually separated, in some literary writing, dots or points were used to indicate divisions.
［A］ in spite of
［C］ contrast to
6) The firemen were unable to determine ［A］ exactly what ［B］ caused the fire, when ［C］ they said that they would continue ［D］ the investigation.
16. either … or 或者……或者；非此……即彼(连接并列词或引导并列从句)
If a scientist holds an idea to be true and finds any counter evidence whatever, the idea is either modified or abandoned.如果科学家一直认为一种观点是正确的，而他又发现了任何其他相反的根据，那他原来的观点或者被更正或者放弃。
7) Too much ［A］ electric current may flow ［B］ into a circuit as a result either of a fault ［C］ in the circuit and ［D］ of an outside event such as lighting.
17. even if (=even though) 尽管；即使(引导让步状语从句)
Myra wouldn't forget her mother's birthday, even if she seldom wrote at other times. 迈拉尽管在别的时候绝少写信，可母亲的生日她是不会忘记的。
I knew that even if the case was one in which it was impossible to anticipate the problem in advance, I could handle whatever I found. 我知道即使无法提前预测到这一问题，不管遇到什么我都会处理好的。
The man who conceives himself to be a “failure type person” will find some way to fail, in spite of all his good intentions, or his will power, even if opportunity is literally dumped in his lap. 那些认为自己是“失败型的人”总会失败的，不管他有多好的想法和多么坚强的意志，即使机会真的来到他身边。
Retirement often brings many problems surrounding the "What do I do with myself?" question, even though there may be no financial cares.即使没有经济上的顾虑，退休也会经常带来诸如“我自己怎么办?”的问题。
18. for 因为(引导原因状语从句)
8) The philosophy of science is as old as science itself there have always been scientists who reflected on the process of inquiry.
19. however 然而，但是，尽管(引导并列从句，表示转折)
So teaching gives me pace, and variety, and challenge, and the opportunity to keep on learning. I have left out, however, the most important reasons why I teach. 所以说，教学使我的工作进程有了规律，使我的生活变得丰富多彩，教学向我提出挑战，也给了我不断学习的机会。不过，我要教书的最重要的几个原因还没有讲到呢。
20. if (if only) 如果(引导条件状语从句)
9) What it rains while we are a long way from shelter?
21. in case 万一(引导条件状语从句)
I shall stay in the hotel all day in case Mary comes. 我要一直呆在旅馆，以防玛丽过来。
Take more clothes in case the weather is cold. 多带点衣服以防天气冷。
In case she arrives before I come back, ask her to wait for me. 万一在我回来之前她来了，让她等我。
In case I forget it, please remind me about it. 万一我忘了，请提醒我。
10) In case the house down, we’ll get the insurance money.
［A］ will burn
［B］ would burn
11) I don’t think she’ll be upset, but I'll see her in case .
［B］ she is
［C］ she does
［D］ she would
22. in case of 万一，以防(连接名词或名词短语)
I keep am umbrella here in case of rain. 我带了把雨伞以防下雨。
In case my not being there, ask my assistant to help you. 万一我不在，叫我的助手帮帮你。
23. in order that 以便，为了(引导目的状语)
I have come all the way from Vienna in order that you should thoroughly understand me. 我从维也纳那儿远道而来就是为了你能彻底理解我。
They arrived early in order that they might get a good seat. 他们赶早而来以便能有个好座位。
24. in that 既然，因为(引导原因状语从句)
Critism and selfcritism is necessary in that it helps us to correct our mistakes. 批评与自我批评是必要的，因为能帮助我们改正错误。
This subsection has rhetorical usefulness in that it enhances the credibility of the researcher by indicating that the data presented is based on a thorough knowledge of what has been done in the field and, possibly, grows out of some investigative tradition.这一节(文字)还可以起到修辞的效果。它表示，报告所提供的资料，是在对课题有关领域的过去情况作过透彻了解的基础上提出来的，因而可见是经过一定的调查研究的，这样便提高了对研究人员的可信度。
25. lest 唯恐(引导条件状语从句，从句中谓语多由should构成虚拟语气，有时省去should用动词原形)
She began to be worried lest he should have met with some accident. 她开始不安起来，唯恐他发生什么事。
He was watching me or something for an hour or two, drawing back the curtain so little lest I catch him, but I saw his face, and I think I can see now the anxiety upon it, the worried impatience. 我看见他正从窗口朝外张望。有一两个钟头，他大概一直在留神我的动静；他只把窗帘掀开一点儿，生怕我发现他，但我还是看到了他的脸。我觉得现在我还能看到他脸上的忧虑神情，那种担心而且焦急的神情。
26. neither … nor 既不……也不(可连接两个主语、宾语、表语、谓语和状语)
But neither the nursery nor the motel my parents bought later had provided enough income to send my sister and me to college. 然而，无论是托儿所还是我父母后来购买的汽车旅馆都不能提供足够的收入供我和妹妹上大学。
I have neither property nor money. 我既没有什么家当也没有钱。
There will be neither rest nor tranquility in America until the Negro is granted his citizenship rights. 直到黑人被赋予公民权美国才会有歇息和安宁。
She neither ate nor drank. 她不吃也不喝。
Tom just came at the right time, neither too early nor too late. 汤姆来得正是时候，不早也不晚。
27. nevertheless 然而；尽管如此，仍就(引导并列从句，表示转折)
Nevertheless, perhaps people should not be spending so much of their time in front of the TV. 然而，或许人们不应花那么多的时间看电视。
There wasn't any news, nevertheless, she went on hoping. 尽管没有任何消息，但她仍抱有希望。
28. no matter 不管怎样(后接疑问词)
For me, teaching is a redeye, sweatypalm, sinkingstomach profession. Redeye, because I never feel ready to teach no matter how late I stay up preparing.对我来说，教书是个令人熬红眼睛、手掌出汗、精神沮丧的职业。说熬红眼睛，这是因为我晚上无论备课备到多晚，总觉得备得还不充分。
You know how it is: you pick up something in a restaurant and your teeth turn rotten, no matter how careful you are.你知道这是怎么回事：只要你在饭馆里拣东西吃，牙齿就会被搞坏，你再当心都没有用。
29. no sooner … than 一……就(引导时间状语从句，以No sonner开头的句子要倒装)
The sun had no sooner started to shine than it was clouded over again. 太阳还没有开始出来就被云遮上了。
No sooner had he gone to bed than the telephone rang once more. 他还没到床上电话又响起来了。
30. not only … but (also) 不但……而且(连接两个对等的主语，谓语，表语，宾语，不定式，ING结构，ED结构或分句)
We will not only bring joy into other people's lives, but also, very often, add happiness into our own. 我们不仅要给别人的生活带来欢乐，而且经常给我们自己的生活增添幸福。
12) Nature ［A］ not only gave the Middle Atlantic region fine harbors ［B］ , howerver ［C］ endowed it with ［D］ a firstclass system of inland waterways.
31. now that 既然(引导原因状语从句)
The Russians might come in a few hours and kill them all ——though most of them were already thinking of how they could escape——but in the meantime, for a brief spell, now that the Fuehrer's strict control of their lives was over, they would seek pleasure where and how they could find it.俄国人说不定几小时之内就要打进来，将他们统统杀掉——尽管他们中间大部分人已在考虑如何逃命——但此时此刻，既然元首对他们生活的严格控制已经结束，虽是短暂的片刻，他们也要及时行乐。
32. or else 否则；要不(就)(引导并列从句)
You must go there at once or else you can not be able to come back in time. 你心须马上就去，否则你就赶不回来了。
My brother couldn't concentrate upon his guide books for matriculation of postgraduate very long, he was too tired, ——or else too sleepy. 我弟弟不能集中精力看他的考研书，他太累了——要不就是太瞌睡了。
33. provided (=providing) 以……为条件，如果……的话，只要(引导条件状语从句，有时和that连用)
She could go with us provided that she arrives in time. 她如及时赶到，就会和我们一起去。
I'll go to the U.S.A, provided I have enough money. 只要我有足够的钱我就去美国。
34. since 自从；因为(引导时间和原因状语从句)
It has been only forty years since television came to control American free time. 电视开始主宰美国人的空闲时间，至今也不过才40年。
Prof. Glom has named them skyscrapers since they seem to be scraping the skies. 格莱姆教授将它们命名为摩天大楼，因为它们似乎已经擦到了天。
It was 3:30 PM on Monday, April 30, 1945, ten days after Adolf Hitler's fiftysixth birthday, and twelve years and three months to the day since he had become Chancellor of Germany and had instituted the Third Reich. 当时是1945年4月30日星期一下午3点30分，是他56岁生日的第10天，离他当上德国总理和成立第三帝国正好12年零3个月。
35. scarcely … when 一……就(引导时间状语从句，scarcely在句首句子要倒装)
Scarcely had he gone out when it began to rain heavily. 他还没去天就下起了大雨。
36. so … that 如此……以致(引导结果状语从句)
He speaks quickly； the tone of his voice is so commanding that it silences everyone.
With this(what he says) he strikes out, smashing his fist into WEISS's face in a blow so unexpected and so wild that WEISS, totally unprepared, is knocked down against the wall.话音刚落，他便冷不防拔出拳头朝韦斯脸上猛地挥去，韦斯猝不及防，被打倒在墙脚。
37. so that 以便；以致(引导结果状语从句)
Furthermore, it(weekly schedule) will enable you to plan your activities so that you have adequate time for both work and play.而且，它(每周日程安排)能帮你安排你的一切活动，使你有充足的时间学习和娱乐。
He could see that she had been patient all her life, so that now, after years of it, her lips were set in a gentle and saintly smile. 他看得出，她一生都很有耐心，经过多年的忍耐后，现在她的嘴边总持着一丝温柔、圣洁的微笑。
He believed in simplicity so much so that he used only a safety razor and water to shave.他信奉简朴，甚至于只用一把安全剃须刀和水刮胡子。
I was looking for a temporary job so that I could save up some money to go travelling.我在找一份暂时的工作，以便能攒点钱去旅行。
38. that (引导主语、宾语和表语从句)
Still, he could not help thinking that if anything should happen, the nearest person he could contact by radio, unless there was a ship nearby, would be on an island 885 miles away. 而且，他不禁想到，如果发生意外，要是附近没船，通过无线电能联系到最近的人便是在885英哩处的一个小岛上。
It is well known that many of our problems —— everything, in fact, from the generation gap to the high divorce rate to some forms of mental illness —— are caused at least in part by failure to communicate. 众所周知，我们的很多问题——实际上是所有情况：从代沟到高离婚率到精神病——至少部分原因是由于缺少相互交流。
Educators report that the generation growing up with television can barely write an English sentence, even at the college level. 教育学家发现从小到大看电视长大的这一代人，即使大学水平，也几乎不会写通顺的英语句子。
39. thus 这样(引导结果状语从句)
This is not to say there aren't arguments and jealousies, but, on the whole, behavioral research discloses that human relations at work are just easier, perhaps because they are more regular and predictable and thus simpler to adjust to than the sporadic(随机性的，单个发生的), the more intense and less regular relationships in the community.这不是说工作中没有争论和嫉妒。但总的来讲，行为科学研究揭示，工作中人与人之间的较好相处，这或许是因为工作上的人际关系较有规律，更易于预料，因此更容易协调，而在社会上，人与人之间的关系是断断续续的，比较紧张，而且较少有规律可循。另外，工作班组也会对其成员稍稍施加压力，促使他们学会相互协调，消除“摩擦”，因为人们知道他们每天都要共同努力，相互协作，才能完成一定的工作。
It(the suspicion of the pathient) contributes to the spiral of lawsuits and of “defensive medicine，” and thus it injures, in turn, the entire medical profession. 病人对医生的不信任使医疗诉讼案增多，造成医生避免风险的“防御性诊治”增多，而这些又进而有损于整个医疗事业。
13) Research into the dynamics of storms is directed toward improving the ability to predict these events to minimize damage and avoid loss of life.
［A］ and thus
40. unless 除非，如果不(引导条件状语从句)
Unless we are very careful, we can't do our work well. 如果不仔细的话，我们就不会把工作做好。
But he won't be much longer unless he has the medicines on that list. 但他不能活多久，除非有这单子上的药。
14) you return those books to the library immediately you will have to pay a fine.
41. until 到……为止，最后(not…util，止到……才)(引导时间状语从句)
He pursued various theories for several days until I suggested we take the toy apart to see how it did work. 我劝说他好几天用其他理论(来解释它的工作原理)，最后我建议把那玩具拆开看一看它的工作原理。
Thereafter, he used the shaving cream every morning until the tube was empty.从那以后，他每天早晨用那剃须膏，直到用完。
It was not until the 18th century that man realised that the whole of the brain was involved in the workings of the mind.到了18世纪，人们才认识到人的整个大脑参与思维活动。
15) the 1500’s the first European explored the coast of California.
［A］ It was not until…then
［B］ It is not until…when
［C］ It is until…that
［D］ It was not until…that
① when可以状语从句表示“当……时候” When I speak he awayls whispers to others.
② when在引导状语从句时，表示对比(可译为“本该……却……”) Why are you here when you should be at work.
③ when在引导状语从句时，表示条件(可译为“在……情况下”) I was very difficult when it comes to you.
43. whenever 无论何时(引导并列从句，表示转折)
He had a habit of telling me jokes whenever he saw me.他有个习惯，每次见到我都要跟我讲些笑话。
I heard the story many times as a child, whenever my family visited Aunt Bettie in the old house in Berryville, Virginia.她的轶事，在我还小的时候就听过多遍。每逢我们一家去看望她时，她都要讲讲她的故事，当时姨婆住在弗吉尼亚贝利维尔一所旧房子里。
44. whereas 然而，另一方面(引导并列从句)
She had never done anything for them, whereas they had done everything for her. 她从来没有为他们做过任何事，而他们为她做了一切。
Whereas some people like rice, others like steamedbread. 有些人喜欢吃米饭，有些人喜欢吃馒头。
45. wherever 不论何处(引导地点状语从句)
He sat a little while somewhere, had something to eat at one of these places, then went wherever he had to go. 他在什么地方坐了一会，吃了点东西，然后去他该去的任何地方。
Wherever he goes, I will follow, and I don't care what will happen. 不管他到哪儿，我都要跟着，我不管会发生什么事。
16) Human behavior is mostly a product of learning, the behavior of animal depends mainly on instinct.
1) A错。 改为far。
2) A错。 改为long。
3) C错。 改为that。
7) D错。 改为or。
12) C错。 改为but also。
13) A 为正确答案。