一、hardly ... when ... / before和no sooner ... than ...
Hardly ... when ...和no sooner ... than ...这两个句型都有“一……就……”“刚刚……就……”的意思,二者有时可以互换。Hardly ... when ...句型中的hardly可换为scarcely或barely,when可以换为before。
使用这两个句型时需注意:主句通常使用过去完成时,从句通常使用一般过去时,表示主句动作发生在从句动作一瞬间之前;当hardly / scarcely / barely或no sooner位于句首时,主句需要部分倒装(从句语序不变)。例如:
Hardly had I got into the classroom when it began to rain. 我刚一进教室天就下起雨来。
No sooner had he gone to bed than he fell asleep. 他一上床就睡着了。
1.—Did Linda see the traffic accident?
—No, no sooner ________ than it happened. (2006年天津卷)
A. had she gone B. she had gone
C. has she gone D. she has gone
2. The girl had hardly rung the bell ________ the door was opened suddenly, and her friend rushed out to greet her. (2010年福建卷)
A. before B. until C. as D. since
二、A is to B what C is to D
句型“A is to B what C is to D”意为“A 对B之关系犹如C对D之关系”,是为了让人明白 A 与 B 的关系,而利用人所熟知的 C 与 D 的关系来进行比喻的句法。从结构上看,what从句为表语从句,而在这个表语从句中,what又充当表语。这个句型实际相当于:A is something to B as C is (something) to D。例如:
Air is to us what water is to fish. 我们离不开空气,就像鱼儿离不开水一样。
Exercise is to the body what thinking is to the brain. 运动与身体的关系,就如同思考与头脑的关系。
Engines are to machines ________ hearts are to animals. (2006年山东卷)
A. asB. thatC. whatD. which
三、can never ... too ...和can't ... too ...
Can never ... too ...和can't ... too ...这两个结构看似是否定形式,实际表达的却是肯定含义,意为“越……越好”“再……也不为过”。例如:
A man can never have too many ties. 男人有多少条领带都不为过。
Drinking water can never be too clean. 饮用水越干净越好。
You can't praise him too highly. 你无论怎么表扬他都不为过。
有时,can never (can't) ... enough ... 结构也可以表达与此相同的含义。例如:
I can't thank you enough. 我对您感激不尽。
1. —Must I turn off the gas after cooking?
—Of course. You can never be ________ careful with that. (2005年江西卷)
A. enough B. too C. so D. very
2. —I was riding along the street and all of a sudden, a car cut in and knocked me down.
—You can never be ______ careful in the street. (2003年北京春)
A. much B. very C. so D. too
四、may / might ... but ...
大部分同学都对may / might ... but ...句型比较陌生,但其实这个句型在阅读材料中很常见,高考题中也时有出现。大多数情况下,这里的may / might并不意为“可能”,而是谈论一定是真实情况的事实,表示一种让步关系,可译为“虽然”“即使”。该结构在含义和用法上与may / might ... yet ...结构非常近似。例如:
I may like it very much, but I am not going to buy it. 我很喜欢它,但却并不打算买下来。
We ________ have proved great adventurers, but we have done the greatest march ever made in the past ten years. (2006年天津卷)
A. needn't B. may not
C. shouldn't D. mustn't
需要注意的是:这个结构中的may / might有时也作“可能”解,此时其后的but分句通常表示一种不确定的语气。
Helen ________ go on the trip with us, but she isn't quite sure yet. (2005年安徽卷)
A. shall B. must C. may D. can
五、so / such ... that ...句型中的倒装情况
So / Such ... that句型大家一定再熟悉不过了,但与其有关的倒装用法却一直让很多同学头痛,即so / such位于句首表强调时,主句需要部分倒装(that后的结果状语从句不倒装)。需要注意的是:位于句首引起倒装时,so后面要接上其直接修饰的形容词、副词等,而such既可以连同such + a / an + adj. + n. (可数)或such + adj. + n. (不可数或可数)的结构一起,也可以单独使用。例如:
So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. 他太害怕了,以至于一动都不敢动。
Such a nice man did he seem that we all believed him. 他看上去是个很好的人,所以我们都相信了他。
1. —Did you see who the driver was?
—No, so quickly ________ that I couldn't get a good look at his face. (2007年上海春季卷)
A. did the car speed by B. the car sped by
C. does the car speed by D. the car speeds by
2. So sudden ________ that the enemy had no time to escape. (2009年山东卷)
A. did the attack B. the attack did
C. was the attack D. the attack was
3. ________ homework did we have to do that we had no time to take a rest. (2006年福建卷)
A. So much B. Too much
C. Too little D. So little
4. ________ rapid progress has he made that we all admire him. (2008年东北三校一模卷)
A. Very B. So C. Such D. Too
5. ________ is the power of TV that it can make a person suddenly famous. (2009年辽宁卷)
A. Such B. This C. That D. So