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2012
11-21

纠正错误的阅读习惯 Breaking Poor Reading Habits

Habit 1: Reading word by word

This is how children are taught to read, but when you concentrate[集中] on separate words you often miss the overall concept of what is being said. People who read each word as a distinct[不同的] unit comprehend[理解] less than those who read faster by “chunking[组成语块]” words together in blocks.

Solution:

Speed reading involves reading blocks of words at one time and comprehending the meaning of the word group. Think of viewing a digital[数字的] image. There are millions of pixels[像素] that only make sense when they are seen together. In the same way, our brains can comprehend ideas better when it takes in a group of words at one time.

Practice expanding the number of words that you read at a time. You may also find that you can increase the number of words read by holding the text a little further from your eyes. The more words you can read in each block, the faster you will read!

习惯1:逐字逐句阅读

这是教小孩子阅读的方法。可是当你将注意力集中于个别字词时,通常会错过阅读材料的整体意思。将每个单词作为独立个体来阅读的人不如那些将单词组成语块来阅读的人读得快、理解得深。

纠正方案:

纠正错误的阅读习惯 Breaking Poor Reading Habits - 第1张  | 快乐英语  快速阅读包括每次读取语块及理解词组的意思。把这想象为数字影像吧。成百万计的像素只有结合在一起才能成像。同理,我们的大脑每次以一组词为单位阅读可以理解得更好。

练习增加你每次阅读的单词量。你会发现将文章与眼睛的距离拉开一点可以增加你所读单词的数量。你阅读的每一个词组单词数量越多,就可以读得越快!

Habit 2: Sub-vocalization[默读]

This is the habit of pronouncing each word in your head as you read it. Most people do this to some extent or another. When you sub-vocalize you “hear” the word being spoken in your mind. This takes much more time than is necessary because you can comprehend a word much quicker than you can say it.

Solution:

To turn off the voice in your head you have to first acknowledge[承认] that you do it (how did you read the first part of this article?) and then you have to practice not doing it. When you sit down to read, tell yourself that you will not sub-vocalize. You have to practice and practice this until this bad habit is erased[消除]. Reading blocks of words also helps as you can’t “say” a block of words.

Eliminating[消除] sub-vocalization alone can increase your reading speed by an astounding[令人惊骇的] amount. Otherwise, you are limited to reading at the same pace as talking which is about 250-350 words per minute. If you are an efficient scanner, you may increase this rate to between 400 and 500 words per minute. The only way to break through this barrier[障碍] is to stop saying the words in your head as you read. If you can train yourself to simply scan the words without thinking about the pronunciation, you will increase your speed significantly.

习惯2:默读

也就是看书时在大脑里读出每个单词的习惯。大多数人或多或少都会这样做。默读时,你在脑海中“听到”被读出声的单词,这样会花掉很多不必要的时间,因为理解一个单词要比将它说出来快得多。

纠正方案:

要消除大脑中的声音,首先你必须意识到自己会那样做(你是怎样阅读本文的第一部分的呢?),然后要练习如何戒除。当你坐下来阅读时,告诉自己不要默读。你必须不断练习,直到把这个坏习惯改掉。阅读语块也很有效,因为你不可能同时“说”一堆单词。

单单是改掉默读的习惯就可以惊人地加快你的阅读速度。不然你的阅读速度将受限于说话的速度——一分钟约250-350个单词。假如你是一个高效的浏览者,你可以将速度提高到每分钟400-500个单词。消除这个障碍的唯一办法就是阅读时不要在脑中念单词。如果你可以训练自己只是浏览单词,而不会想它的发音,你就能大大地加快阅读速度!

Habit 3: Inefficient eye motion

Slow readers tend to focus on each word and work their way[努力前行] across each line. The eye can actually span[跨越] about 1.5 inches at a time which, for an average page, encompasses[包括] four or five words. Related to this is the fact that most readers don’t use their peripheral vision[周围视觉] to see words at the ends of the line.

Solution:

Soften your gaze when you read. By relaxing your face and expanding your gaze, you will begin to see blocks of words instead of each word as distinct unit. When you get good at this your eyes will drift across the page. When you get close to the end of the line, let your peripheral vision take over to see the last set of words. This way you can quickly scan across and down to the next line.

习惯3:用眼不当

看书慢的人容易将视线集中于每个单词,每一行都从头读到尾。事实上,眼睛的覆盖范围约为1.5英寸(3.81cm),也就是四到五个单词的长度(一般页面)。言及于此,事实上很多人不会使用周围视觉延展到每行的末尾。

纠正方案:

阅读时放松视线。放松脸部,扩大视线范围,你会慢慢看到成组的语块,而非独立的单词。逐渐上手之后,你的视线就可以覆盖整页。将要读到每行的末尾时,让你的周围视觉辐射到最后的那组字词。这样你就可以快速地扫描过去,接着看下一行。

Habit 4: Regression[回读]

This is unnecessary re-reading of material. Sometimes people get in the habit of skipping back to words they just read and other times they jump back a few sentences just to make sure that they read something right. When you “skip back” like this you lose the flow and structure of the text and your overall understanding of the subject decreases.

Solution:

Be very conscious of regression and do not allow yourself to re-read material. To reduce the number of times that your eyes skip back to a previous sentence, run a pointer[指示器] along the line as you read. This could be a finger, or a pen or pencil. Your eyes will follow the tip of your pointer, smoothing the flow of your reading. The speed at which you read using this method will largely depend on the speed at which you move the pointer.

习惯4:回读

即对材料进行不必要的重读。有时人们习惯回头再读刚刚读过的单词,有时他们回头读一些句子,只是为了确认自己读对了。当你这样“回跳”阅读时,文章的流畅性和结构就会荡然无存,你对主题的整体理解也会减弱。

纠正方案:

要特别注意回读,严禁自己重读材料。为了减少眼睛跳回之前读过的句子的次数,阅读时在每行移动指示器。指示器可以是手指、钢笔或铅笔。你的双眼就会跟着指示器的尖端移动,从而让你的阅读变得流畅。阅读时使用这种方法的阅读速度很大程度上取决于你移动指示器的移动速度。

Habit 5: Poor Concentration

If you’ve tried to read while the TV is on, or when there is lots of activity around you, you know how hard it is to concentrate on one word, let alone on many sentences strung together. Reading has to be done in an environment where external distractions[分心的事物] are at a minimum.

Solution:

Stop multitasking[多重任务处理] while reading. If you are attempting to speed read, this is particularly important because when you use the speed reading techniques of chunking blocks of words and ceasing[停止] to sub-vocalize, you may have “read” one or two pages before you realize you haven’t understood something properly. Pay attention to internal distractions as well. If you are rehashing[重复] a heated discussion you had earlier, or wondering what to make for dinner, this will also limit your ability to process more information.

Sub-vocalization actually forces your brain to attend to what you are reading and that is why people often report they can read and listen to the radio or watch TV at the same time. To become an efficient reader you need to stop doing these things all together.

习惯5:注意力不集中

如果你试过阅读时开着电视,或者周围太热闹,你就知道要把精神集中到一个字上有多难,更别提由很多句子构成的篇章。阅读的环境要将外界干扰降至最低。

纠正方案:

阅读时不要同时做其他事情。假如你想进行速读,这点尤其重要,因为当你使用语块和停止默读等速读技巧时,你有可能“读”了一两页才意识到自己有些地方不是很明白。同时也要注意内部干扰。如果你在回想之前进行的热烈讨论,或想着晚餐吃什么,这样也会限制你处理更多信息的能力。

事实上,默读强迫大脑专注于你所读的材料,这也是人们经常说他们阅读时可以同时听收音机或看电视的原因。要成为一个看书效率高的人,你必须不再同时做这些事。

Habit 6: Approaching reading linearly[线性地]

We are taught to read across and down, taking in every word, sentence, paragraph, page, and chapter in order. When you do this, though, you pay the same attention to supplementary[补充的] and superfluous[多余的] material as you do to the critical portions[部分]. There is usually far more information written than you actually need to understand.

Solution:

Stop reading a book like you would listen to a speech. Scan the page for headings and look for the bullet[核,核心] points or things in bold[粗体]. There is no rule saying you have to read in the order the author presents the information. Do a quick scan of the page and decide quickly what is necessary and what isn’t. Skim over the fluff[微小或无关紧要的东西] and pay attention to the key material.

As you read, look for the little extras[附加物] that authors add to make their writing interesting and engaging[吸引人的]. If you get the point, there is no need to read the example, anecdote[轶事], or metaphor[暗喻]. Similarly, decide what you need to re-read as well. It is far better to read the one critical paragraph twice than to read all eight paragraphs describing that same concept.

习惯6:使用线性阅读方式

我们被教导读完一行再往下,按照字、句、段、页、章的顺序进行阅读。不过当你这样做时,你对补充材料或多余材料的关注度与处理关键内容时并无差别。材料中给出的信息通常比你真正需要理解的要多。

纠正方案:

不要像听演讲一样读书。浏览页面看标题,寻找核心点或粗体字词。没人规定你一定要按照作者交代信息的顺序进行阅读。快速浏览一下整页,迅速决定需要的与没用的内容。略过无关紧要的东西,留意关键材料。

阅读时寻找作者为了让文章更有趣生动而添加的小内容。假如你已经理解,那就无需读例子、轶事或暗喻等。同理,你也要决定需要重读的部分。将关键的一段读两遍要比读完整整八个阐述同一观点的段落有用得多。

最后编辑:
作者:千年光影
这个作者貌似有点懒,什么都没有留下。

纠正错误的阅读习惯 Breaking Poor Reading Habits》有 6 条评论

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